Prevalence of Male Infertility In Kirkuk City, Iraq


  • Ali F. Alnajjar


Kirkuk male infertility, Prolactin, Testosterone, spermatogenesis.


Background: Infertility is a major global health and social concern, it is affecting on average 15-20 % of couples worldwide.
Although there were much data on infertility in other countries, little exist on infertility in Iraq, especially in Kirkuk city.
There are variations in male fertility parameters in different regions have repeatedly been suggested to be influenced by
geographic locations. The impact of overall lifestyle, behavioral patterns, ethnicity, work stress and associated factors upon
health differ greatly between countries leading to differences in semen qualities in connection with geographic variations. In
this study we have two hundred and fifty infertile males in Kirkuk city complaining of infertility for more than one year were
included in this study from January 2015-September 2018
Data source: Azadi teaching hospital –infertility consultant center, private clinics, international IVF center. Data collected
about smoking, alcoholic, anabolic hormones, atrophy, small or undescended testis and mumps, also seminal analysis and
reproductive hormones levels.
Results showed majority of infertile at age 26- 35 years and 85.6% have primary infertility. The majority of sperm abnormality
was azoospermia and poor spermatogenesis noted in candidates with, small testis, varicocele and smokers.
FSH, LH, and Prolactin were highly increase especially in small testis patients and to a lesser extent of normal size testis of
the infertile. Testosterone hormone looks significantly decrease with zero increase both in normal and small size testis.
Aim of study: To study the prevalence of male factor contributing infertility with seminal, hormonal and other parameters in
Kirkuk city-Iraq.







How to Cite

Prevalence of Male Infertility In Kirkuk City, Iraq. (2022). Journal of Pharmaceutical Negative Results, 13(1), 89-94.