https://pnrjournal.com/index.php/home/issue/feed Journal of Pharmaceutical Negative Results 2023-02-01T13:38:55+00:00 JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL NEGATIVE RESULTS editorpnrjournal@gmail.com Open Journal Systems <p>The main aim of the <strong>Journal of Pharmaceutical Negative Results </strong>to publish the negative results so that newer generation of researchers should not waste their time and money repeating the same studies and finding the same unpublishable results. Most of the journals have published only the positive results and findings. However they do not publish negative results. We believe negative results are also a part of quality research. <br /><br /><strong>Research papers: </strong>Original research work will be considered under this section depending on the volume and quality of work.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>Articles on new methods/procedures on drug evaluation, testing and analyses will be published. Innovative studies on established methodologies and their modification will also be considered. The articles must be supported by data.</p> <p><strong>Rapid communication: </strong>An article will be accepted for rapid communication if it merits priority publication. The decision of acceptance or otherwise will be communicated within 4 weeks of receipt of the manuscript and accepted articles will be published in the following issue.</p> <p><strong>Research letters: </strong>Preliminary work with hard data can be published as a Letter. Brief research communications will also be accepted under this section.</p> <p><strong>Correspondence: </strong>Comment(s) on previously published articles, items of current interest and articles of general interest and views can be submitted for this section.<br /> </p> <p><strong>Note : Journal Publishes articles both Positive and Negative results</strong></p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> https://pnrjournal.com/index.php/home/article/view/7508 Cardiac Ct Evaluation Of Post Cabg Graft Assessment 2023-01-29T17:29:03+00:00 Dr. Aparna Shrikanth Prabhu , Dr. Tushar Kalekar , Dr. Suhas M , Dr. Shreeya Goyal , Dr. Akhil R a@a.com <p><strong>AIM:</strong> To study the cardiac CT evaluation of post CABG graft assessment.</p> <p><strong>MATERIALS AND METHODS:</strong> A Prospective cross-sectional study including 25 post CABG patients at Dr. D. Y. Patil Medical College, Pimpri, Pune in between September 2020 to July 2022. The patients were given a brief explanation of the procedure before the commencement of the CT scan. Patients with normal RFT and NBM status for a minimum of 4 hours were taken. A 128-section multidetector CT scanner is used to scan patients (Philips Medical Systems).</p> <p><strong>RESULTS:</strong> The total number of grafts assessed was 68 grafts. Out of which 25 grafts (36%) were arterial grafts and 43 grafts (64%) were venous grafts. Comparison of mean percentage stenosis of all venous grafts vs all arterial grafts were highly significant (p- value &lt;0.001) and arterial grafts had better graft patency than venous grafts. Graft occlusion was compared between symptomatic and asymptomatic patients using the Chi-square test which was highly significant (p-value &lt;0.001) and there was a positive correlation between symptoms and graft stenosis. The assessment of stenosis or occlusion of arterial bypass grafts on MDCT in comparison to ICA resulted in a sensitivity of 100%, specificity of 100% respectively. The diagnostic accuracy of MDCT is 100%. The assessment of stenosis or occlusion of venous bypass grafts on MDCT in comparison to ICA resulted in a sensitivity of 100%, specificity of 93.33% respectively. The diagnostic accuracy of MDCT is 96.83%. The graft stenosis percentages on CT were obtained. Grafts are graded as minimal, mild, moderate, and severe based on the percentage of stenosis. Total grafts with no stenosis (37 grafts), minimal stenosis (1 graft), mild stenosis (1 graft), moderate stenosis (5 grafts), and severe stenosis (24 grafts).</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSION:</strong> A direct correlation between symptoms and the degree of stenosis of grafts. As compared to arterial grafts, venous grafts had lower long-term patency. MDCT was found to be on par with ICA in the aspects of sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy and due to the growing demand for faster scanning, reduced contrast agent use, and radiation exposure, as well as ongoing technological advancement, the MDCT will play an increasingly important role in the monitoring of CABG patients, CAD, and all other situations that call for a non-invasive, quick, and reliable diagnostic technique.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://pnrjournal.com/index.php/home/article/view/7509 Effect Of Room Temperature And Refrigerated Storage On Automated Hematological Parameters And Peripheral Blood Smear Examinations 2023-01-29T17:31:32+00:00 Dr. Yesha Parimalbhai Lad , Dr. Abhinav Shetty, Dr. Nirali Patel, Dr. Banyameen Iqbal, Dr. Charusheela Gore a@a.com <p><strong>Background: </strong>Complete blood count and morphological assessment of peripheral blood smear examination are the most common investigations done in laboratory in order to give crucial information about disease and its final diagnosis. Blood samples are commonly sent from the clinical lab after an extended post-collection period. The laboratory must determine whether to accept or reject such a sample when it is delivered. If the specimen is approved, the laboratory must next choose whether to carry out all the tests requested or just those necessary, given the specimen's age and also choose what remarks should be added to the reported results reflecting the accuracy or limits of the analysis.</p> <p><strong>Aim: </strong>To evaluate the variation in hematological parameters on automated hematological analyzer and peripheral blood smear examination of samples stored at room temperature and samples stored at refrigerated temperature (2-8<sup>0</sup>C).</p> <p><strong>Materials and methods: </strong>Blood samples were collected from 60 patients. Hematological parameters like Hemoglobin, HCT, MCV, MCH, MCHC, Platelet count, red blood cell and White blood cell count were analyzed in room temperature storage and refrigerated storage at 2-8<sup>0</sup>C for 24 hours (30 samples each) using automated hematology analyzer. Peripheral blood smear from samples stored at room temperature and at 2-8<sup>0</sup>C in refrigerators for 24 hours were also examined.</p> <p><strong>Result: </strong>This study showed hematological parameters affected when stored at room temperature were RBC, HCT, MCV, MCH, MCHC, RDW and Platelet count. Hemoglobin and WBC Counts were not affected after 24-hour storage at room temperature. While at 2-8<sup>0</sup>C refrigeration, all the hematological parameters were stabilized and changes were not statistically significant. Morphological changes like crenated RBCs, increased size of platelet and vacuolated WBCs were seen peripheral blood smear examination.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> This study emphasizes to assay hematological parameters and peripheral blood smear examination immediately after sample collection in order to prevent the misinterpretation of results. Standardized storage conditions reduce pre-analytical variation and the hematological parameters affected by storage and temperature in a way that could influence clinical decisions. Therefore, to provide an accurate report if there is a known delay in the interpretation of the sample, refrigeration of EDTA blood samples at 2-8<sup>0</sup> C is advised.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://pnrjournal.com/index.php/home/article/view/7510 Splenic Artery Embolisation: An Institutional Case Series 2023-01-29T17:33:16+00:00 Dr. Vishal Nandkishor Bakare, Dr. Krishna Teja Nerella a@a.com <p>Pancreatitis is one of the common causes of acute abdomen, with vascular complications being most dangerous life-threatening ones. They include formation of vessel thrombosis, erosion of vessel wall and formation of pseudo aneurysm due to release of activated pancreatic enzymes. Pseudoaneurysms most commonly affect the splenic artery, gastro-duodenal, pancreatico-duodenal, gastric and hepatic arteries. Rupture of this pseudo-aneurysms can be fatal due to massive bleeding. Hence prompt diagnosis and treatment of these lesions is necessary to prevent further catastrophe.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://pnrjournal.com/index.php/home/article/view/7511 Role Of Diffusion Tensor Imaging And Diffusion Tensor Tractography On 3t Mri In Spinal Cord Lesions 2023-01-29T17:35:27+00:00 Dr. Suhas M , Dr. Purnachandra K Lamghare , Dr. Aparna Shrikanth Prabhu , Dr. Tushar Kalekar , Dr. Karthik M , Dr. Akhil R a@a.com <p><strong>AIM:</strong> The aim of the study is to study the role of Diffusion Tensor Imaging and Diffusion Tensor Tractography on 3T MRI in spinal cord pathologies.</p> <p><strong>MATERIAL &amp; METHODS:</strong> A Prospective observational study includes 50 students at Padmashree Dr. D. Y. Patil Medical College and Hospital and Research Centre, Pimpri, over the period of 2 years in between September 2020 to November 2022. Patients with suspected spinal cord pathologies were subjected to MR Imaging of the spinal cord. Standard spine protocol (Sag T2 tse, Sag T1 tse, Cor T2 stir, Ax T2 tse, Ax T1 tse), DTI and DTT were done for all patients.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS:</strong> Out of 50 participants 23 were females (46%) and 27 were males (54%) &amp; majority of the patient belonged to age group of 31-40 years (26%). 13 patients were normal, and 9 patients had minimal disc bulges but no significant spinal canal stenosis/ indentation of the spinal cord. These 22 patients considered normal showed mean FA (0.69 +/- 0.01) and ADC values (0.88 +/- 0.09) which were similar at all disc levels. In the 15 patients showing significant spinal stenosis and normal appearing cord, statistically significant reduction in FA values and increase in ADC values were seen at levels C3-C4, C4-C5, C5-C6. 2 patients with syrinx, 2 patients with Hirayama disease, and 2 patients with long and short segment cord hyperintensity had significantly reduced FA and increased ADC values. DTT showed displacement of the white matter tracts ventrally in a case of spinomedullary junction astrocytoma.</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSION:</strong> DTI is a promising new tool which offers an insight on the pathophysiology and microstructural changes related to diseases of the spinal cord. DTI changes appear in normal appearing spinal cord in cases of cervical spondylotic myelopathy. This shows promise in detection, prognosticating and planning treatment in some neurosurgical disorders like CSM. More information is needed regarding the precision and dependability of DTI indices in classifying cord disease. To overcome limitations improvement and standardization of scanning procedures and image processing is necessary.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://pnrjournal.com/index.php/home/article/view/7512 Customers Perception And Satisfaction Towards Technology Enabled Bank Services: An Empirical Study 2023-01-29T17:37:31+00:00 Pooja sharma , Dr Sudipta Sen Gupta a@a.com <p>“Banks play an important role in the economic development of a country. A sound and effective banking system is the backbone of an economy. The emergence of private banks and new generation banks has been changed the entire banking operations drastically by the use of sophisticated new technologies like Internet Banking, Automated Teller Machine (ATMs), Electronic Fund Transfer (EFT), debit cards, credit cards, mobile banking, etc are accessible to customers on a 24x7 basis across the world”. Technology enabled banking offers superior services to customers by providing the operation concept with anywhere and anytime. The technological modifications had been pioneered in India through the entry of new private sector and foreign banks. So, now such a scenario has reached wherein even the conventional banks within the public quarter and old personal banks are forced to pursue technology-enabled offerings. The aim of this work find out the Customers Perception and Satisfaction towards Technology Enabled Bank Services. The present study used both primary as well as secondary data. The core of the study being customers’ awareness and satisfaction, the study centre’s and its relationship with the related independent variables. The collected primary data were analyzed and interpreted properly to find the result of the research work. The findings of the study showed that there is a significant relationship between the gender, age, educational qualification, occupational status, annual income, type of bank and the level of awareness and satisfaction towards technology enabled banking services. This would assist the banks to analyze the quality perceptions about era based banking and assist banks with tools and techniques to progress their eminence.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://pnrjournal.com/index.php/home/article/view/7513 Diagnostic Aids In Orthodontics – A Review 2023-01-29T17:39:31+00:00 Dr. Srishti Shrivastava , Dr. Nivedita Sahoo , Dr. Sanghamitra Jena , Dr. Pritam Mohanty , Dr. Bhagabati Prasad Dash , Dr. Samarendra Dash a@a.com <p>Accurate and precise diagnosis plays the first and the most important role in management of any orthodontic disharmony. Various methods of diagnosing craniofacial anomalies and malocclusion have been studied in the past. Historically, clinical examination was solely used as a diagnostic aid but over the last few decades, a sudden boom has occurred in the field of diagnosis due to advancements in technology. This article describes the various diagnostic aids over the past and also briefly describes the recent advancements that are made in the field of digital diagnosis.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://pnrjournal.com/index.php/home/article/view/7514 An Empirical Investigation On The Influence Of Global Competencies On The Performance Of Indian Software Engineers Expatriates 2023-01-29T17:41:27+00:00 Dr.Jenifer Lawrence a@a.com <p>In today’s world of global software teams, managing members from multiple countries and cultures adds to an already complex mix of software productivity issues. While software team compositions have been researched based on tasks, personality, and role descriptions, few models exist to help software project managers’ reason about software teams with respect to culture. As more culturally diverse teams develop software products, software project managers need to manage teams based on cultural factors that will inevitably arise. This research examines the effect of culture on software project team management, and its impacts on software productivity, especially as it pertains to requirements engineering tasks. The main objective is to investigate how individuals from different cultures work together in software development projects, and to use that understanding to formulate a model for reasoning about key cultural factors. This research paper focuses on cross cultural management practices namely cross cultural competency and cross cultural conflict management practices adopted in software companies of India.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://pnrjournal.com/index.php/home/article/view/7515 Biochemical Determinants Of Premature Canities In Pune, India: An Analytical Cross-Sectional Study 2023-01-29T17:43:24+00:00 Devi Sriveni Bolisetti , Aravind Kumarreddy Rangayyagari , Ankita Agrawal , Kirti Deo , Ajay Kumar Mathur , Jayshree Harishkumar Ahuja a@a.com <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Biochemical and hormonal imbalances need to be explored for their potential role in the premature greying of hair (PHG) so that they can be leveraged to prevent and treat the condition itself. The present study was conducted to determine the bio-chemical factors associated with PHG.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>A hospital-based, analytical cross-sectional design was undertaken among the 57 PHG patients and 57 controls, attending the dermatological outpatient clinic at a tertiary-level health centre in Pune, Maharashtra. Mann-Whitney test was employed to test the significance in difference of the bio-chemical parameters between the PHG group and the control group.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Higher percentage of the patients in PHG group had vitamin D deficiency (31.6%), than the control group (7%). Vitamin B12 deficiency was higher in the control group (77.2%) than PHG group (68.4%). Prevalence of hypocalcaemia was higher among PHG group (29.8%), while none in the control group were found to have hypocalcaemia. PHG patients had significantly lower vitamin D levels (p&lt;0.001), calcium levels (p=0.001), HDL (p=0.002), TSH (p&lt;0.001) and Ferritin levels (p&lt;0.001) than the control groups. However, serum Vitamin B12 levels were found to be similar between the PHG and control group. (p=0.702). Low ferritin levels were found among 3.5% of the PHG patients and none in control group had low ferritin.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Vitamin D, calcium, HDL, TSH and Ferritin may be included in the routine evaluation of the premature canities for prompt diagnosis of the deficiencies and initiate appropriate interventions at the earliest.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://pnrjournal.com/index.php/home/article/view/7516 retrcted 2023-01-29T17:45:23+00:00 <p>............</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://pnrjournal.com/index.php/home/article/view/7517 “Development And Optimization Of Paroxetine Hydrochloride Loaded Microemulsion Almond Oil Based Transdermal Drug Delivery” 2023-01-29T17:47:17+00:00 Marwa Farea Mohammed Masoud , Abdul Hafeez a@a.com <p><strong>Background: </strong>Paroxetine HCl is the antidepressant drug which is known to be a most potent serotonin reuptake blocker. This study was aimed to reduce the consequences accompanied with the fluctuations in concentration of plasma level after oral administration of drug and additionally in imitation to minimize broad metabolism of the same in the hepatic by flourishing and optimizing the formulation of transdermal paroxetine hydrochloride in order to increase its bioavailability and safety. <strong>Objectives: </strong>In the present research, paroxetine Hydrochloride microemulsion transdermal gel as alternative route of drug administration have been prepared and characterized. <strong>Methods:</strong> A pseudo-ternary phase diagram, D optimal and Factorial designs have been used to observe and optimize the microemulsion. Using pseudo-ternary phase diagram microemulsion area was subjected to select and according to that ratio of percentage oil, percentage surfactant and percentage co-surfactant, microemulsion were optimized. Based on phase diagrams, formulations have been prepared and elucidate for various parameters including compatibility test within the drug and excipient by FT-IR. The prepared transdermal gel was tests for analysis of size distribution, Zeta potential, thermal analysis, % CDR, % transmittance, globule size, Cmax, Tmax, drug content, <em>in-vitro</em> diffusion, <em>ex-vivo </em>permeation, and accelerated stability studies were performed. <strong>Results:</strong> Microemulsion based gel of Paroxetine HCl formulations results revealed that all the physicochemical parameters were found to be desirable. The best formulation passed thermodynamic stability studies, robust to dilutions of different medium and showed drug release of approx. 79.23% in 8h. The optimized formulation having the combination of Almond Oil (3ml), surfactant mixtures were consisted of Tween®80 &amp; Propylene glycol in 1:3 ratio (15ml) and DDW (32ml) as an aqueous phase showed best physicochemical parameters with 89.12 % of <em>in-vitro</em> drug release at 8h i.e. close to predicted values obtained from d-optimal design. The optimized formulation showed no significant changes on physiochemical studies when subjected to accelerated stability studies according to ICH guidelines. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> The developed Paroxetine HCl microemulsion based transdermal gel showed good physicochemical properties. It is concluded from the present studies that Paroxetine HCl microemulsions shown a potential transdermal drug delivery system with virtuous stability and drug release profile.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://pnrjournal.com/index.php/home/article/view/7518 “Development And Optimization Of Microemulsion Based Transdermal Drug Delivery For Paroxetine Hydrochloride” 2023-01-29T17:49:07+00:00 Marwa Farea Mohammed Masoud , Abdul Hafeez a@a.com <p><strong>Background and Objectives: </strong>The aim of this work was to design and evaluate a microemulsion transdermal gel of Paroxetine Hydrochloride for the treatment of depression. Paroxetine is the most potent serotonin reuptake blocker antidepressant.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Phase-Titration method, D-Optimal design, Factorial design were used for the development of Paroxetine HCl microemulsions gel. Using pseudo-ternary phase diagram microemulsion area was selected and according to that ratio of % oil, % surfactant and % co-surfactant, microemulsion was optimized. Based on phase diagrams, formulations were prepared and evaluated for various parameters including compatibility test within the drug and excipient by FT-IR. The prepared microemulsion gel was subjected for various tests like size distribution study, zeta potential, DSC, % CDR, % transmittance, globule size, Cmax, Tmax, drug content, <em>in-vitro</em> diffusion and <em>ex-vivo </em>permeation studies.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Microemulsion based gel of Paroxetine HCl formulations results revealed that all the physicochemical parameters were found to be desirable. The best formulation passed thermodynamic stability studies, robust to dilutions of different medium and showed drug release of approx. 65% in 8h. The optimized formulation having the combination of Flaxseed Oil (3ml), surfactant mixture consisted of Tween®80 &amp; Propylene glycol in 1:3 ratio (17.06ml) and double distilled water (29.93ml) as an aqueous phase showed best physicochemical parameters with 60.82 % of <em>in-vitro</em> drug release at 8h i.e. close to predicted values obtained from d-optimal design. The optimized formulation showed no significant changes on physiochemical studies when subjected to accelerated stability studies according to ICH guidelines.</p> <p><strong>Interpretation and Conclusion: </strong>Based on the results it can be concluded that Microemulsion transdermal gel of Paroxetine Hydrochloride could be a potential candidate for the treatment of depression.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://pnrjournal.com/index.php/home/article/view/7519 Effects Of Supervised Structured Exercise Program On Insulin Sensitivity In Type2 Diabetes Mellitus-A Scoping Review 2023-01-29T17:51:13+00:00 Dr.Sugasri Sureshkumar , Dr.k.Revathi , Dr.P.Antony Leo Aseer a@a.com <p><strong>Back ground</strong>: Diabetes mellitus which is a systemic disease&nbsp; is with prediction upto 79.4 million by 2030 <strong>Methods</strong>: Inspite of existence of various exercise programs ,supervised Structuring with clear prescription&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; is most needed&nbsp; in the present scoping review. Collection :Scopus, Pubmed, WOS, Cochrane register comprising components of diabetes ,Best exercise, Aerobic exercise, sample protocol qualified according to broad domains of exercise programs were identified and assessed<strong>. Results</strong>: Recent Scoping review reports clear picture of most appropriate Structuring of exercise program with clear dosage .</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://pnrjournal.com/index.php/home/article/view/7610 Identifying And Imparting A Suitable Data Mining Methods For Precision Agricultural Practices 2023-01-31T06:19:06+00:00 K.Vijesh , Dr. R. Nagaraj a@a.com <p>Numerous ongoing projects and a growing global population continuously put pressure on the agricultural sector. As much as 70% more production efficiency is needed for all types of crops from the same land resources in order to meet demand without negatively impacting the environment. At the same time, one-third of our food is wasted. Other variables, such as global warming, more frequent storms, water shortages, and problems with soil and water stream contamination, which can result in waste and decreased output, might make it more difficult for farmers to fulfill the growing demand for crops for human and animal use. We evaluate a technology to help manage these problems. We examine a technology to help the agricultural sector, which will benefit both farmers and the general public by producing high-quality, safe food that satisfies both present and future demand, in order to control these difficulties. Smart farming, the Internet of Things, big data, high-performance computing, and cloud computing are all combined in the solution to provide precision agricultural services innovation that address real-world issues. The creating a solution with a data-driven applications will be facilitated by storing agriculture data on supercomputers. In soil and plant research, supercomputers store information from multiple sources, including sensors on the ground. It is possible to collect valuable operational information about soil quality, crop nutrients, forecasts of crop yields, the best harvesting time, gas emissions, and soil contamination through satellite and drone imagery. Through machine learning and artificial intelligence, the supercomputer also extracts crucial data and converts it into apps that are sent through different routes, with direct delivery to farmers' cell phones being the most convenient. In this paper we will be discussing about best practices we carry forward to implement a precision agriculture practice in India.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://pnrjournal.com/index.php/home/article/view/7611 H-Gwmfo: Efficient Energy Aware Clustering For Wsn Using Hybrid Grey Wolf Based Multi-Objective Forest Optimization 2023-01-31T06:21:09+00:00 Dr.V.Hema a@a.com <p>WSNs face issues like energy constraints, limited memory, and computation time.&nbsp; The clustering process helps in reduction of energy consumption. Clustering faces several challenges in the Cluster head selection and the network’s optimal data routing. So, this paper presents an efficient clustering approach using hybrid Grey Wolf Optimization based multi-objective forest optimization algorithm (H-GWMFO) approach to shorten the distance at which sensor nodes in wireless sensor networks transmit data, which offers energy-efficient clustering and the best data routing to increase the longevity of the network. The cluster head selection was performed by the grey wolf Optimization, followed by the Multi objective Forest optimization that enhanced the CH on the basis of Energy, Euclidian distance, trust, and delay of the sensor Nodes. When compared to the well-known cluster-based protocol created for WSNs, like WOA, GWO-DNN, RF, and the K-means with GWO methods in MATLAB for Delay, Energy consumption, Packet Delivery Ratio, Throughput and Network Lifetime of the proposed protocol's performance is evaluated. Simulation results demonstrated that our proposed H-GWMFO achieved a higher network lifetime that existed for 253 seconds and higher throughput of 303.1123, proving it performed better than the existing systems</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://pnrjournal.com/index.php/home/article/view/7612 A Comparative Study On Analyzing And Resolving A Use Case On Utilizing Unused Landscape Availability In Tamil Nadu Suitable For Agriculture Using Clustering Algorithm 2023-01-31T06:23:17+00:00 K.Vijesh , Dr. R. Nagaraj a@a.com <p>In today’s world taking an informed decision before deploying a new project will saves from&nbsp; losses in any field. To have an informed decision we must have thoroughly analyzed data. It is possible by implementing an apt algorithmic approach. [1] In order for food systems to become sustainable, we need to undergo transformation processes. Food chains and agriculture are undergoing considerable transformations as a result of digitization.In this article we have analyzed the unused landscape availability in Tamil Nadu State (India), which is suitable for agriculture. The classification approach is what we discussed throughout this article. To sum up, the task of predictive analysis is carried out to achieve the outcome. [1] Through information technologies, food chain coordination can be enhanced, inefficiencies reduced, inefficiencies reduced, and inefficiencies reduced in the agro-food industry. As well as exploring the drawbacks of Information Technologies and factors that limit their adoption in agriculture, the paper also discusses the factors that limit their uptake.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://pnrjournal.com/index.php/home/article/view/7613 Influence Of Physical Wear And Tear On The Durability Of Building Structures Of Apartment Buildings 2023-01-31T06:41:54+00:00 Asadulla Toshtemirovich Khotamov a@a.com <p>Determining the level of durability in relation to the operation of multi-apartment buildings (MAB) and determining the function of high wear and tear are important issues in the renovation strategy. The distribution of the service life of residential buildings, the function of their reliability and the distribution of depreciation of the buildings under study are interdependent concepts. The deterioration of the object will be the higher, the longer the period of its operation. However, this is not an increase that reflects the life span of the building, nor is it a cost that is directly proportional to its age. The article presents a model and methodology for checking the level of deterioration and reliability of MAB, operated in different regions of the Republic of Uzbekistan, built in the period 1967-2020. The main conclusion was made regarding the mechanism of damage to residential buildings: during the period of operation of the facility, in which the uptime to failure has an exponential distribution, the average remaining uptime does not change at any time. It has been confirmed that after a certain period of non-failure operation, the tested MABs perform their functions as new buildings.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://pnrjournal.com/index.php/home/article/view/7614 Improving The Properties Of Mobile Sands With Modified Connectors Based On Local Raw Materials 2023-01-31T06:44:26+00:00 Ahmedov Sulton Ilesovich t.ph.s., Professor , Zhuraeva Felura Davronova, PhD Associate Professor Mazhidov Samariddin Rashidovich, PhD, Associate Professor , Saburov Khursand Mambetsalievich, PhD , Khidoyatova Nasiba Shoakbarovna. a@a.com <p>The article examines the possibilities of obtaining a solid-reagent for the production of a polymer-binding additive" SXM-1", obtained on the basis of the waste of the process of production of GIPAN" Navoiyazot "AJ and" Maksam-Ammofos " AJ waste phosphogips, and the possibility of obtaining these reagents as a result of studying the possibilities of obtaining a solid-reagent, the effect of the granulometric and mineralogical composition of the polymer "SXM-1" in the composition of the sand on the hardening of the sand protective layer was determined based on the study of the laws of moisture change and absorption process on the sand surface of various binders</p> <p>On the surface of wet and dry sand, an improvement in the properties of wind and frost resistance was determined based on the formation of a protective layer by means of a polymer solution "SXM-1" and an improvement in the processes of its absorption, moisture retention.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://pnrjournal.com/index.php/home/article/view/7616 Prevalence And Variations Of The Pyramidalis Muscle In Adults And Fetuses: Relevance And Clinical Implications 2023-01-31T07:05:11+00:00 Suhani Sumalatha, Sharanya Rao, Vrinda Hari Ankolekar a@a.com <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> The pyramidalis muscle is a triangular shaped muscle that is located in the anterior abdominal wall, which originates from body of pubis and pubic symphysis and inserted into linea alba. The close relationship of pyramidalis with the rectus abdominis muscle has led to the belief that it develops embryologically as a doubling over the rectus abdominis muscle in the ventral portion.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Thirty-one adult cadavers (26 male and 5 female, embalmed in 10% formalin) and 30 fetuses (14-first trimester, 10-second trimester, and 6-third trimester; embalmed in 10% formalin) were dissected in the present study.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The prevalence of muscle was found to be 87% in adult and 100% in fetus. In 77% of adult cadavers the muscle was present bilaterally and in 10% of adult cadavers the muscle was present unilaterally. In fetuses the muscle was present bilaterally. Few variations related to size and appearance of muscle were observed in both adult and fetus pyramidalis muscle.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> The prevalence of pyramidalis muscle was 100% in fetus, whereas in adult it was 87%. The regression of muscle may be the reason behind this difference. In monkeys and prosimians, the pyramidalis tense the abdomen for compression of glands, helping in the expression of milk. Therefore it is speculated the pyramidalis muscle is atavistic owing to the loss of supernumerary nipples in humans.</p> <p>The calculated Pyramidalis-pubo umbilical index was proportionately more in fetus than the adult pyramidalis muscle.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://pnrjournal.com/index.php/home/article/view/7641 Growth Performance And Organoleptic Evaluation Of Broiler Fed With Medicinal Leaf Meal Supplementation 2023-01-31T11:56:50+00:00 Khrissenda May C. Ferrer a@a.com <p>The effects of medicinal leaf meal on the growth performance and organoleptic qualities of broiler meat were conducted at experimental poultry house of Isabela State University, Cauayan City, Isabela from December 26, 2012 to February 6, 2013. A total of 120 three day-old broilers were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments: T1- Home mixed Ration without medicinal leaf meal, T2- Homemixed Ration with 0. 50% Turmeric Leaf Meal, T3- Home mixed Ration with 0. 50% Herbaka Leaf Meal , T4- Home mixed Ration with 0. Insignificant weekly body weight of the birds was recorded indicating that inclusion of leaf meals did not enhance body weight of the broilers.</p> <p>The effect of leaf meal influences the gain in weight of the birds over the birds at fifth week of the feeding trial. The fourth-week percentage rate of growth exhibited significant differences in which the birds fed with holy basil and herbaka leaf meals obtained the highest rate of growth. The results arising from the feed cost analysis show that it is highly beneficial to include any of the medicinal leaf meal, which is highly reasonable. The addition of medicinal leaf meal to broiler diets increases income, as shown on the return above in the feed cost analysis. The incorporation of medicinal leaf meal, particularly herbaka leaf meal, could reduce the production cost of broilers as shown in the return above feed cost, thereby making it recommended</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://pnrjournal.com/index.php/home/article/view/7642 Molecular Docking Studies Of Solanum Xanthocarpum Against Streptococcus Mutans In Dental Caries 2023-01-31T12:01:24+00:00 R. Sai Nivedha , V. Poorna Pushkala a@a.com <p>Dental caries is one of the prevalent persistent disease conditions in humans. It is caused by the bacteria <em>Streptococcus mutans</em>, a major pathogen which when infected, creates an acidic environment in the mouth leading to the formation of biofilm thereby ends up in tooth decay.&nbsp; Dental caries can be managed by oral hygiene practices, fluoride application, pit and fissure sealants as the primary treatments today with temporary solution. But, Siddha medicine is emerging in treating the Dental caries which remains as the mainstay after all these years for the large population. In this study, Solanum xanthocarpum is identified as the Siddha form of medicine which consists of phytochemicals such as Carpesterol, Oleic acid, Solasodine, Diosgenin, Lupeol, Apigenin, Tomatidenol, Caffeic acid, Scopoletin that interacts with the binding site of target Glucosyltransferase (GFT) – PDB – 3AIC core amino acid residues (Asp588, Gln960, Glu515 and Asp477)of the <em>S. mutans</em>, binds with them and inhibit the synthesis of Extracellular polysaccharides through which the biofilm formation is suspended. The docking studies were carried out using identified phytocomponents against GFT proving the binding efficiency with all 4 amino acid residues by Carpesterol, Oleic acid, Solasodine followed by Diosgenin, Lupeol, Tomatidenol, Caffeic acid, Scopoletin bound with 3 amino acid residues.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://pnrjournal.com/index.php/home/article/view/7643 A Review On The Genus: Sesamum 2023-01-31T12:03:30+00:00 Dr.N.Astalakshmi ,Gokul T , GowriSankar K B , Nandhini M , Hari Hara Sudhan M R. , Dr.M.Surendra Kumar a@a.com <p>Nature is usually a golden sign to point out the outstanding phenomena of co-existence. Natural merchandise from plants, animals and minerals are the premise for treating human diseases. Medicative are presently in demand and their acceptance is increasing progressively. Undoubtedly, plants play a very important role by providing essential services in ecosystems. The pedaliacae is one of the source of medical plants with 13 genus and 70 species. One of the active member among the genus is sesamum. Sesamum comprises about 37 species. The plants of this genus are annual or perennial herbs with fit to be eaten seeds. The species are by and large African with a few species occurring in India, Sri Lanka and China. The essential goal of this assessment is to offer and to evaluate the suggested phytochemical, Pharmacological research of Sesamum genus. This review showed that some species of genus sesamum including S.Indicum, S.radiatum, S.Sesamoides, S.Alatum, S.Calycinum, S.Anolense, S.Angustifolium, S.Laciniatum, S.Triphyllum, S.Capense and S.Prostratum need further phytochemical and pharmacological investigations to develop new drugs from natural sources.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://pnrjournal.com/index.php/home/article/view/7644 Efficacy Of Pelletized Biochar From Various Agri-Waste Materials On Soil Chemical Properties And Growth And Yield Of Honeydew Melon (Cucumis Melo L.) 2023-01-31T12:05:55+00:00 Cipriano M. Ticman Jr. a@a.com <p>A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect pelletized biochar derived from various agricultural waste materials on the growth and yield of honeydew melon, its sensory characteristics, and on selected chemical properties of soil. Pelletized biochar from 60:40 mixture of poultry manure and corn stalk/ cobs, rice hull/ straw, peanut shell, sugarcane bagasse and coconut husk at 3 tons per hectare was applied as organic fertilizer and inorganic fertilizer (40-0-0 kg NPK) as control, the experiment was arranged in RCBD with three replications. The study was conducted at Isabela State University, Cauayan Campus, Cauayan City from January 28, 2022, to April 07, 2022. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications.</p> <p>The applications of pelletized biochar on honeydew melon increased the pH level of the soil after it was amended with different pelletized biochar. It also enhanced the availability of macro and micronutrient in the soil. Application of pelletized biochar enhanced the growth of honeydew melon where the pelletized biochar from poultry manure and peanut shell produced maximum yield of 17 tons/ha. Honeydew melon applied with different pelletized biochar reflected similar sensory characteristics of fruit in terms of color, aroma, taste, and texture. Production of honeydew melon using pelletized biochar from poultry manure and coconut husk reflected the maximum ROI of 83.06 %, hence recommended.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://pnrjournal.com/index.php/home/article/view/7645 Evaluating The Content Of The Language Skills Curriculum At Islamic University Of Perlis, Malaysia 2023-01-31T12:08:07+00:00 Abdulrasheed Olatunji Abdussalam , Abdul Basir Bin Awang , Mohd Ramli , Abdallah Saleh Abdallah a@a.com <p>The study aimed to know the level of assimilation of language skills by the Islamic University of Perlis students, according to the variable of academic qualification and duration of study of the Arabic language. Analytical and understanding of language skills teaching, the results of the study showed that most of the students are not able to identify sub-ideas from general ideas or suggest a title, or general idea or sub-idea to express the content of a text or an audio dialogue, and it is difficult for some of them to communicate in Arabic with their colleagues while participating in classroom practices They are not descriptive, and they do not write texts or ideas from the lesson in correct writing formed with their parsing signs.</p> <p>In light of the results of the study, a set of recommendations were presented, including the use of multimedia in acquiring language skills among students of the Islamic University of Perlis Malaysia, and interest in teaching language skills to students of the Islamic University of Perlis Malaysia, using multimedia because it has an impact on the hearts of students, and their motivation to learn, as the curriculum was adopted. The lecturers must diversify the ways and methods of providing language skills lessons, and the lecturer must adhere to the use of comprehensive language, both orally and in writing, and encourage students to practice language skills inside and outside the university.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://pnrjournal.com/index.php/home/article/view/7646 Atypical Presentation Of Posterior Urethral Valve With Urinary Ascites 2023-01-31T12:10:48+00:00 Dr Sanjana Challagalla , Dr Shradha Salunkhe , Dr Vineeta Pande a@a.com <p>Urinary ascites in a neonate is a rare presentation. Neonatal bladder rupture leading to urinary ascites is extremely rare and very few cases have been reported in preterm neonates . The underlying etiology may be spontaneous or iatrogenic. The most common cause of bladder rupture in neonates is the umbilical catheterization, accounting for 75% cases. Obstructive uropathy like posterior urethral valve, abdominal trauma, neurogenic bladder, iatrogenic injuries during surgical procedure, birth trauma, difficult obstetric delivery, and forceful urethral catheterization may also lead to bladder perforation . Very rarely, it can occur due to ischemic injury caused by prolonged hypoxia, which may be precipitated by drugs like morphine administration, birth asphyxia, and poor perfusion. Management may be done conservatively with establishment of urinary drainage by catheterization or may require surgery</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://pnrjournal.com/index.php/home/article/view/7677 Influence of Product Quality, Price and Services Quality towards Customer Satisfaction at the Auto-Detailing Workshop 2023-01-31T16:38:13+00:00 Raihan Pradipta Bimawan, Dr. Rano Kartono, Dr. Arta Moro Sundjaja a@a.com <p>The primary purpose of this research is to examine the effect or influence of product quality price and services quality towards customer satisfaction either partially or simultaneously. The research population is customers of HD Car Care in the Bekasi region, with a sample size of 120 respondents that were selected using judgmental sampling. The research employs multiple linear regression analysis. According to the data analysis results, only product and service quality significantly influence customer satisfaction. Quality of product is the main influential towards customer satisfaction. The price has no substantial influence on customer satisfaction, although product quality, quality services, and price all impact customer satisfaction. The product's quality is the dominant factor in this study. The adjusted coefficient of determination of R square of 0,987 suggests that product quality, service quality, and price can explain 98,7% of the variable of satisfaction, while the remaining 1,33% is explained by another variable not explored.</p> <p> </p> 2022-12-26T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://pnrjournal.com/index.php/home/article/view/7678 A Cross Sectional Study of Patient Safety Attitude among Nurses Working in Teaching Hospitals in Klang Valley, Malaysia 2023-01-31T16:43:13+00:00 Fatini Nazurah, Nor Azmaniza Azizam, Aniza Ismail, Ahmad Taufik Jamil, Leny Suzana Suddin a@a.com <p>Nurses are one of the most important personnel that plays a major role in ensuring safe and high-quality care to the patients. Their attitudes toward patient safety could affect the patient experience in the hospital setting. Contrasting evidence in the previous study on the relationship between duration of working experience with the attitude toward patient safety warranted further exploration in the current pandemic era. The purpose of this study was to determine the perception of attitude towards patient safety and other associated factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted involving nurses from selected teaching hospitals in Klang Valley, Malaysia during the Covid-19 pandemic period. Data was collected using validated online Safety Attitude Questionnaires (SAQ). The target group was nurses in charge of general medical and surgical wards and was conveniently sampled. A total of 152 nurses participated and had working experience of more than 2 years (93.4%). The majority of positive responses were observed in 4 domains which were the teamwork climate, safety climate, job satisfaction, and stress recognition. The highest positive responses were found for the safety climate domain. In terms of negative responses, it was observed to be highest in the preparation of the unit management domain. However, there was no significant association between any domains with age group, gender, or working experience. In conclusion, the perception of the nurses toward patient safety attitude might be influenced by the managerial style, geographical work setting, and different job scopes. The leaders in a healthcare facility or service delivery should consider focusing on a strategy to ensure adequate management support for the medical personnel that might influence their attitude to patient safety culture in the future.</p> 2022-12-26T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://pnrjournal.com/index.php/home/article/view/7679 Credit Risk Analysis Of Islamic Bank VS Conventional Bank In Malaysia 2023-01-31T16:46:47+00:00 Nurul Farhanah Kamsani, Siti Aida Sheikh Hussin, Zalina Zahid a@a.com <p>The market-based approach is an alternative to accounting-based approach. The use of accounting information alone does not reflect the appropriate level of credit risk for banks. Therefore, comparisons of credit risk between two groups of banks using both approaches are essential. The aim of this present study is two-fold. First, the level of credit risk between Islamic banks and conventional banks was measured and compared. Second, the level of credit risk was empirically compared using several approaches. The credit risk of two domestic full-fledged Islamic banks and four domestic conventional banks was assessed between 2014 and 2018 using two accounting-based approaches (non-performing financing (NPF) &amp; non-performing loan (NPL) ratios) and Z-score. For higher comparability, the level of credit risk was measured based on distance to default (DD) and probability of default (PD) using KMV Merton model as the market-based indicator. Further statistical test for equality of variances was performed to execute a reliable and meaningful comparison between the two bank groups. The results derived from Z-score and KMV Merton model revealed higher credit risk in Islamic banks, in comparison to conventional banks. The NPF and NPL ratios exhibited contradicting outcomes for Islamic banks (lower credit risk). These findings signify that it is vital for Islamic and conventional banks to implement both accounting- and market-based measures as varying approaches yield different results for credit risk assessment. </p> 2022-12-26T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://pnrjournal.com/index.php/home/article/view/7680 Data Governance Conceptual Model for IoT (DGCMIoT) in Flood Management: the Malaysia Perspective 2023-01-31T16:50:55+00:00 Siti Sarah Maidin, Boung-Yew Lau Simon, Marini Othman, Aliza Abdul Latif, Mohamad Firdaus Mat Saad a@a.com <p>Internet of Things (IoT) is seen as a promising technology that can effectively collect data through varieties of devices and sensors that are placed at every imaginable places. The analyses of the data can be used in many ways such as weather prediction and flood mitigation. The value of the data collected and used depends on how well it collected, managed and governed. Following that this paper aimed at presenting an overview of the uses of IoT in the risk reduction and mitigation of flood condition in Malaysia by doing a rigorous review on the relevant research papers. Then, a case for a good data governance for IoT-based data in the Malaysian context is made based on the desirable characteristic of: availability, usability, integrity and security of the collected data. Finally, a conceptual model mapped against the basic IoT three-layered architecture and examines the role of the system’s user, compliance, processes and tools is proposed. The conceptual model also considered several models reportedly used in other countries and strengthens by findings gathered through field study. The model can be used to further develop guide to improve decision making and transparency in managing flood disaster.</p> 2022-12-26T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://pnrjournal.com/index.php/home/article/view/7681 The impact of HRM Practices, Mediating Effect of Job Security on Employees’ Performance In Electrical Manufacturing Industries at Penang, Malaysia 2023-01-31T16:54:57+00:00 Bokhori Md Amin a@a.com <p>The purpose of this study is to identify the relationship between HRM practices on employees’ performance mediated by job security in manufacturing industries. Methodology in this study was built where a questionnaire was designed for data collection to measure HRM practices related to compensation and benefits, training and development mediated by job security on employees’ performance. Data were collected among employees in electrical manufacturing industries at Prai Industrial Estate and Bayan Lepas Industrial Zone, Penang, Malaysia which 6322 population, 361 samples, and 222 respondents were successfully collected and analyzed from 28 electrical manufacturing industries. A stratified sampling method was used to collect data and the data obtained were analyzed using SmartPLS version 3.7.8. The finding of study found that the direct impact between compensation and benefits, training and development on employees’ performance has a significant relationship on employees’ performance. The finding also shows that compensation and benefits, and training and development mediated by job security have a significant relationship to employees’ performance. It is proved from SmartPLS analysis. The limitation of the research only covers the manufacturing industries. Apart from these limitations, this research has given a strong impact on the top management of manufacturing industries to design the strategy of human resource management functions to be more effective in improving the work performance among their employees.</p> 2022-12-26T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://pnrjournal.com/index.php/home/article/view/7682 The effect of HRM Practices, Mediating Role of Work Environment on Employees’ Performance In Manufacturing Industries at Kulim Hi-tech Park, Kedah, Malaysia 2023-01-31T16:59:07+00:00 Bokhori Md Amin a@a.com <p>Human resources management is an important activity in manufacturing firms. The purpose of this study is to identify the relationship between HRM practices on employees’ performance mediated by the work environment in manufacturing industries. Methodology in this study was built where a questionnaire was designed for data collection to measure HRM practices related to pay and incentives, learning activities, and, safety and health mediated by work environment on employees’ performance. Data were collected among employees in manufacturing industries at Kulim Hi-tech Park, Kulim, Kedah, Malaysia which 25600 population, 377 samples, and 222 respondents were successfully collected from 25 manufacturing industries. A stratified sampling method was used to collect data and the data obtained were analyzed using SmartPLS version 3.7.8. The finding of study found that the direct impact between pay and incentives, learning activities, safety and health, and employees’ performance has a significant relationship on employees’ performance. The finding also showed that pay and incentives, learning activities and, safety and health mediated by the work environment have a significant relationship to employees’ performance. It is proved from SmartPLS analysis. The limitation of the research only covers the manufacturing industries. Apart from these limitations, this research has given a strong impact on the top management of manufacturing industries to design the strategy of human resource management functions to cover pay and incentives, learning activities, and, safety and health to be more effective in improving the work performance among their employees.</p> 2022-12-26T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://pnrjournal.com/index.php/home/article/view/7683 The Observation on the Acceptance of Virtual Reality in Physical Education 2023-01-31T17:02:57+00:00 M.A.A.M. Hamizi, N.A.M Mokmin, U.A. Ariffin a@a.com <p>In recent years, virtual reality has become one of the most widely used educational tools. Virtual reality (VR) is becoming increasingly popular in the realm of physical education, and it is not surprising. Many scholars have been sparked to investigate the use of virtual reality technology in physical education as a result of this information. To see if virtual reality (VR) will have the same effect on body motions as traditional PE methods, this study was carried out to see if VR was accepted in physical education. In order to construct this application, ADDIE instructional design was used. Virtual reality (VR) applications are typically built with an approach that incorporates a combination of motor learning and the technology acceptance model (TAM). A diverse group of participants, ranging in age from 19 to 23, took part in this research. For the VR group, the students were labeled as "VR" and "TR" for the traditional group. Zig-zag run, jumping jack, jumping rope, and obstacle jumps are the four activities that each group has completed. They observed the total mean difference between the VR group and the TR group to determine whether VR technology can give the same effects on bodily movement as traditional methods by recording heartbeats before and after activities. This is because the heart rate rises as the body's various parts are compelled to act quickly. Interviews with five pupils have been scheduled to see how they respond to technology. This study yielded a wide range of findings. This technology is very appealing to a large majority of respondents, who found it easy to use and useful in physical education.</p> 2022-12-26T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://pnrjournal.com/index.php/home/article/view/7684 Empirical Simulation of Tuberculosis Transmission using Susceptible-Infected Model in Closed Space 2023-01-31T17:08:05+00:00 Nor Shamira Sabri, Fadratul Hafinaz Hassan a@a.com <p>The mathematical model is one of the best approaches to simulate the spreading behaviour of communicable diseases. However, current work primarily focuses on implementing simulation models in open public spaces with large populations, such as for a whole country. Not all communicable diseases are active in an open space; some illnesses like Tuberculosis (TB) spread actively in a condensed and closed area. Hence, in this paper, we develop a simulation using the Susceptible-Infected (SI) model on TB with the combination of the social force model to portray the heterogeneity of human behaviour. This model is applied to a small community with 30 to 120 population numbers within a closed space. We use the computational model to evaluate the effect of total populations on the reproduction number of TB transmission and the infection time. The reproduction number of TB spread in a closed area is influenced directly by the infection time and the number of total populations. The result indicates that knowing the reproduction number of a communicable disease can predict the spread of illness, and preventative action can be performed to limit the disease. Based on the simulation, we found out that the simulation model generates R_0&gt;1 and the infection time falls between six hours and two years, mimicking the duration of the real-life incubation period for TB. The research may benefit public health in forecasting TB transmission and controlling the outbreak.</p> 2022-12-26T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://pnrjournal.com/index.php/home/article/view/7688 The Integration of Agent-based Model and Social Force Model: Realistic Pedestrian Simulation 2023-02-01T03:41:13+00:00 Najihah Ibrahim, Fadratul Hafinaz Hassan a@a.com <p>The fitted pedestrian modeling is vital to construct realistic pedestrian movement dynamics based on the simulation objective. The inclusions of realistic human characteristics are essential in building a realistic pedestrian model to re-enact the actual movement of the crowd, especially during a panic situation. This study compared the discrete approach CA model with the continuous approach ABM model and the enhanced ABM-SFM model using 30 pedestrians in a sample layout to validate and improve the near realistic pedestrian simulation model. The ABM and ABM-SFM models were integrated with the Pythagorean Theorem (PT) to imitate the driving forces in the desired motion. The results showed that CA localization can imitate pedestrians' sudden, unorganized panic but cannot mimic human intelligence in decision-making and forces avoidance. ABM and ABM-SFM models were on par for the first 10 pedestrians evacuated. However, the ABM-SFM model reduced travel distance by 37.50% and evacuation time by 9.04% after 20 pedestrians were evacuated. Overall, the travel distance for escaped 30 pedestrians with the ABM-SFM model was 39.29% longer, and the evacuation time was 13.96% longer than ABM. The ABM model simulates the pedestrians’ movement towards the nearest exit point to form the “fast escape” approach. In contrast, the ABM-SFM model simulates the “safe escape” to provide balance usage of exit points.</p> <p> </p> 2023-01-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://pnrjournal.com/index.php/home/article/view/7690 Ancillary Services from Advanced Metering Infrastructure (ASAMI) in Distributed Renewable Energy Network – A Brief Review 2023-02-01T03:43:56+00:00 S.H. A. Hamid, C P Chen, C H Goh, Wanbalyan, S K Tiong, S P Koh, C T Yaw a@a.com <p>The broad view of the smart grid, ancillary services benefits from the smart grid, and enhanced metering infrastructure in numerous developed and developing nations were described in this study. Renewable energy sources were gathered and discussed in several developed and emerging countries. Each element's benefits and downsides were also examined. Based on the past and current conditions of these countries, the problems, and challenges they confront were highlighted. Each country made several recommendations that were stressed. Thus, an overview of smart grid implementation, development, maintenance, and challenges were generally presented in this paper. This enables and provides an overview for engineering students and novice researchers to comprehend the smart grid and its components on a basic and surface level.</p> 2023-01-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://pnrjournal.com/index.php/home/article/view/7691 Integrated Decision Support System of AHP and EGT for Information Security Control Analysis 2023-02-01T03:47:02+00:00 Loo Bee Wah, Tan Pei Ling, Tey Siew Kian, Chin Wan Yoke a@a.com <p>As the new technologies are developing rapidly, information security’s criminals become more intelligent, and evasive. The information security officer feels challenged in assessing the security control’s criteria, and to make the optimal decision to protect the organization’s data system. In this paper, we propose a hybrid model of Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and Evolutionary Game Theory (EGT) to demonstrate the information security scenario, hence, to solve the problem faced. Firstly, the AHP is applied to evaluate the criteria of information security control. The priority of the alternatives is then determined based on the evaluation of the criteria. Secondly, we model the defence-attack situation by the EGT, where the strategies and payoffs for both parties will be formulated. We apply the replicator dynamic to analyze the evolution process of the game, henceforth the optimal strategy is decided. A case study is presented to demonstrate the application of the hybrid model in solving the information security problem.</p> <p> </p> 2023-01-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://pnrjournal.com/index.php/home/article/view/7692 Patient safety attitude among nurses: A comparison between teaching hospitals 2023-02-01T03:51:25+00:00 Leny Suzana Suddin a@a.com <p>Patient safety attitude perception of the nurses could represent part of the patient safety culture in the hospital setting. The existing different types of hospitals had exhibited different characteristics of patient safety attitude perception in the past. However, there was a lack of comparative study on the patient safety attitude for a different type of hospitals. The main purpose of the study was to compare the patient safety attitude perception of the nurses in teaching hospitals with different establishment periods. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2 selected teaching hospitals with a difference in characteristics. The validated Safety Attitude Questionnaire was utilized for data collection of nurses working in general medical and surgical wards via an online survey form. A total of 152 nurses were recruited as participants with the majority coming from more established teaching hospitals [TH1] (109/152). The gender (p&lt;0.05) and years of working experience (p=0.006) were significantly different between the two hospitals. It was found that 5 out of 6 domains of patient safety attitude revealed significantly different types of responses when compared between these two hospitals. A higher proportion of positive responses was found for the majority of items by the nurses of TH1. A teaching hospital with a longer operational duration and a bigger number of beds could influence the perception of patient safety among the nurses. Thus, policymakers could create a policy that should be able to cultivate a positive patient safety attitude specifically for the newly established hospital. One of the policies is by recommending the teaching hospital managers to practice a workplace pre-placement patient safety training briefing or short courses for the newly appointed nurses in the future.</p> <p> </p> 2023-01-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://pnrjournal.com/index.php/home/article/view/7693 An Integral Transform for Solving the Material Balance Equation 2023-02-01T03:54:00+00:00 S. A. Hashim Ali, A. I. Awang, S. M Yusof a@a.com <p>The concentration of ions in a lithium cell plays an important role in predicting the charge-discharge cycle in a secondary battery. This is done by understanding the transportation processes in a lithium-ion cell during charge/discharge cycle. This paper presents the equations used in the mathematical modeling of a lithium cell. The model equations include the material balance equations, the Ohms Law and the flux equation for the porous electrodes in both the solution (electrolyte) and the solid phases. These equations are then solved analytically, by means of Laplace transform, to give the concentration profile of the lithium ion with respect to the distance and time. The solutions to these equations are plotted in order to understand the profile of lithium ions concentrations during charge/discharge. These plots offer a clear view into how change in one variable interact with other variables and hence could help battery developers predict the performance of their batteries.</p> 2023-01-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://pnrjournal.com/index.php/home/article/view/7694 Uncertainty Analysis using Probabilistic Estimates in Risk Assessment 2023-02-01T03:56:46+00:00 Fatin Amirah Ahmad Shukri, Zaidi Isa a@a.com <p>Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) was applied as a decision-making model to quantify the level of project risk based on risk factors taken from expert opinions and literature studies. The model classifies the datasets of a construction project into one of the five classes such as tolerable, low, medium, high and intolerable level of risk. As agreed, the probability of risk (RP) and the impact of risk (RI) were selected as the inputs for assessing the level of risk (RL). MCS tools have been widely utilized to deal with the inherent variability in construction systems and is a very useful technique for modeling and analyzing real-world systems. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the use of MCS to quantify project risk. Consequently, risk assessment using MCS to represent risk RP and RI is carried out. Using the Monte Carlo method, the risk on processes (R2), construction error (R4) and process delay (R6), low productivity (R8), quality issues (R12), and technical problem (R13) were evaluated in a LOW-HIGH risk range, while the MEDIUM-HIGH risk was contributed by processes (R1), inexperienced project management team (R3), design errors (R5), construction errors (R7), inexperienced site workers (R9), site accidents (R10). At 95% certainty, the highest risk on the project was contributed by construction error (R7) and delay in delay (R11), with a mean value of 56%, followed by risk on design error, R5 (55.8%), risk on inexperienced workers, R9 (47%), and risk on inexperienced project management team, R3 (46.5%).</p> 2023-01-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://pnrjournal.com/index.php/home/article/view/7695 THE PERCEIVED EFFECTIVENESS OF USING MOBILE LEARNING AMONG UNIVERSITY STUDENTS 2023-02-01T03:59:37+00:00 Cheong Tau Han, Siti Maisarah Binti Mohd Aziz, Joseph Boon Zik Hong, Loh Ser Lee, Nor Syazwani Mohd Rasid, Parmjit Singh a@a.com <p>The inability to successfully employ mobile technology for online learning in order to preserve one's learning performance is becoming a big issue. This problem cannot be solved simply by creating more parks and boosting funding for development and administration. There is an urgent need for change, for a better understanding of mobile electronic gadgets' current and future responsibilities in satisfying the needs of modern urban living. As a result, building and controlling the aforementioned technology requires a strategic strategy in order to carry out its functions and tasks. The objective of this research is to investigate how university students assess the efficacy of mobile learning in terms of effort expectation, perceived pleasure, contentment, mobile self-efficacy, behavioural intention, and social aspects. It focuses on UiTM undergraduate students as a unified representation of university students in the context of online learning. This study is based on data obtained from an online survey questionnaire that polled students’ perceived effectiveness of using mobile learning based on the six constructs of the UTAUT model. The data was analysed to determine and assess students' opinions of the efficacy of mobile learning, which may influence students' expected learning outcomes. According to the findings of the study, the perceived success of using mobile learning is related to expected learning outcomes. It is hoped that the research will help make mobile learning more useful for college students in the future.</p> 2023-01-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://pnrjournal.com/index.php/home/article/view/7696 Students’ Difficulties in Solving Mathematical Problem Viewed by Adversity Quotient 2023-02-01T04:02:35+00:00 Amirullah, S Prabawanto, T Herman a@a.com <p>This study aims to determine the difficulties of climbers, campers, and quitters students in solving mathematical problem. This research is a qualitative research with a phenomenological design. The subjects in this study were students of grade VII, a junior high school in Wajo, South Sulawesi. Data collection techniques used were a questionnaire, test, and interview. The results show that the climbers subject face one difficulty in solving a mathematical problem that is difficulty in understanding the problem. The campers subject face three difficulties in solving a mathematical problem that is difficulty in understanding the problem, difficulty in carrying out the plan, and difficulty in looking back. The quitters subject face four difficulties in solving a mathematical problem that is difficulty in understanding the problem, difficulty in devising a plan, difficulty in carrying out the plan, and difficulty in looking back.</p> <p> </p> 2023-01-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://pnrjournal.com/index.php/home/article/view/7697 Comparison of Imputed Statistics Across Rainfall Stations of Four Different Districts in Kelantan, Peninsular Malaysia 2023-02-01T04:04:57+00:00 Lee Shee Chia, Chin Wan Yoke, Ho Ming Kang a@a.com <p>Rainfall data plays an important role in rainfall modelling and forecasting. Rainfall modelling is vital in water resource planning and management, irrigation, flood prevention, risk evaluation, reservoir management and disaster management. However, improvement on hydrological studies have to be done looking at the surge impacts of climate-related natural disasters in Malaysia in recent years. These damaging disasters may report a scenario where incomplete data has been one of the obstacles for rainfall forecasting. Missing data is very common in time series data as sensor malfunction is unavoidable. There are limitations to perform accurate estimation for missing rainfall data. However, completeness of the data for advanced analysis is crucial. Without precise information in a dataset, the rainfall modelling and forecasting will not be fruitful. A few imputation techniques are proposed for the comparison purposes in the ten rainfall gauges in four different districts in Kelantan with missing values fall into category of Missing Completely at Random (MCAR). According to the performance criteria, Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE) and Mean Absolute Error (MAE), K Nearest Neighbor (KNN) outperformed imputation with mean, median, interpolation, LOCF, moving average, imputation by random sample, replaced by a defined value and seasonally decomposed. KNN exhibits stable performance across the different rainfall gauges in Kelantan with lowest RMSE and MAE. </p> 2023-01-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://pnrjournal.com/index.php/home/article/view/7698 The Impact of Blended Learning Upon Mathematics Attitude and Academic Achievement 2023-02-01T04:09:03+00:00 Joseph Boon Zik Hong, Nur Nazathul Adha Binti Abdullah, Cheong Tau Han, Teoh Sian Hoon, Asmahan Bt Abd Razak, Li Juan, Kee Boon Hui a@a.com <p>The Malaysia education system had changed due to enforcement of Movement Control Order by the government. The students are required to learn in their own space using mobile devices as intermediaries. The education system has implemented blended learning and the students learn through that particular instructional strategy. Yet, the concern arises with regard to the blended learning method's impact toward high achieving students. Thus, the purpose of the study is to identify the impact of blended learning toward high achieving students’ attitude toward mathematics, how the students perceive learning mathematics through blended learning and the impact of blended learning toward students' mathematics achievement. The purposive sampling had been implemented in targeting high achieving secondary school students who enrolled in 2 in daily schools in Bachok, Kelantan which indicates school B and C, involving 100 students. The descriptive statistic used in analyzing the finding. Based on the finding, there is a positive impact of blended learning toward high achieving students' attitude in Mathematics. However, the finding shows that the students did not favor learning mathematics through blended learning and they preferred learning through traditional learning. Moreover, from the findings also, it shows that the high achieving students' achievement decreases and the majority of the students get lower grades during blended learning.</p> 2023-01-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://pnrjournal.com/index.php/home/article/view/7699 Effect of Deferred Tax Expense, Current Tax Expense, Accrual Basis, and Audit Quality on Earnings Management 2023-02-01T04:12:05+00:00 Nur Hasana, Yoppy Purnawan, Arta Moro Sundjaja a@a.com <p>This study aims to analyse the impact of deferred expense, current tax expense, accrual basis, and audit quality on earnings management. The object of ths research is a manufacturing company listed on the IDX for period of 2019-2021. Purposive sampling was employed in the research sample selection method to collect data from up to 30 manufacturing companies. The binary logistic regression test with SPSS assistance was used to examine the hypotheses. The examination of the data reveals that the management of company earnings is significantly impacted by deferred expense, current tax expense, accrual basis, and audit quality.</p> 2023-02-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://pnrjournal.com/index.php/home/article/view/7700 Dual Installation Style Design Plan for Interactive Projection Mapping 2023-02-01T04:14:45+00:00 Maria Seraphina Astriani, Jude Joseph Lamug Martinez, Bayu Prakoso Dirgantoro, Lee Huey Yi a@a.com <p>Interactive projection mapping is the use of technology to manipulate and project imagery onto a surface. Users can physically interact with projections to influence the visual display which appears to the audience. Examples include interactive floors and walls. Interactive projection mapping is currently used not only for entertainment but also in the field of education to help students learn. Unfortunately, there is not a lot of research that focuses on planning compared with other research topics, especially in Information Technology. This research has a great impact; however, it makes it difficult for the researchers and even developers to find out the ideal framework for an interactive projection mapping scenario. As the result, the interactive projection mapping solution is still rare to be found in education. Researchers take this opportunity and propose a design plan for creating interactive projection mapping. One design plan can be used for both the wall interactive projection mapping and the table interactive projection mapping installation styles, which makes this design plan unique. It is hoped that researchers will not only be able to design interactive projection mapping for one installation style but can also choose an installation style that is suitable for the environment they wish to use.</p> 2023-01-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://pnrjournal.com/index.php/home/article/view/7702 Bee AR Teacher Collaborative Learning Augmented Reality Framework 2023-02-01T04:18:43+00:00 Maria Seraphina Astriani, Raymond Bahana, Arif Priyono Susilo Ahmad, Lee Huey Yi a@a.com <p>Collaborative learning is crucial to be applied in the field of education especially when teaching the students to achieve effective learning. Since the spread of COVID-19, home learning has now been widely implemented and learning methods are generally transformed from conservative ones that required face-to-face meetings to online (using an internet connection as a medium). Teachers have experienced difficulties because the interactions and collaboration that usually can be obtained in offline (face-to-face) sessions do not occur during online sessions. The use of Augmented Reality technology is believed to solve this problem. However, the current framework is quite difficult to be find and also rarely discusses collaborative learning topic. Researchers see a gap and try to bridge it by developing an Augmented Reality framework called Bee AR Teacher for collaborative learning. Bee AR Teacher collaborative learning framework is expected to be able to help developers or researchers to create Augmented Reality solutions that can help teachers create their own applications so it can be used by the students.</p> <p> </p> 2023-01-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://pnrjournal.com/index.php/home/article/view/7718 ANALYSIS OF THE PROBLEMS AND OPPORTUNITIES OF THE BUILT-IN SATELLITE AND TERRESTRIAL IOT NETWORKS IN THE CONDITIONS OF THE REPUBLIC OF UZBEKISTAN 2023-02-01T07:05:35+00:00 Kh.X. Madaminov , U.T. Aliev a@a.com <p>Large mountainous and desert areas of the Republic of Uzbekistan were not covered by terrestrial network connections. To ensure equity of access, a satellite in Earth orbit will have an observable role in the rapid flexibility and speed of Internet of Things (IoT) connectivity around the world. This article presents the possibilities that make global decisions based on space resources. In particular, it discusses the governance of space and terrestrial IoT technologies and protocols and the requirements they must fit to successfully implement IoT satellite services. A network architecture is proposed, which will be implemented using LoraWAN technology for the implementation of space and terrestrial integrated IoT networks.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://pnrjournal.com/index.php/home/article/view/7719 G.ARBOREUM L. AND G.HERBACEUM L. TYPES: HISTORY OF RESEARCH, NOW AND IN THE FUTURE 2023-02-01T07:08:33+00:00 Axmedov О.А., Xalikova М.B., Matyakubova E.U. a@a.com <p>Xindi growing in tropical and subtropical regions of Arabia, Africa and Asian countries-China (G.arboreum L.) and Afro-Asia (G.herbaceum L.) wild, ruderal and cultural diploid goose species Gossypium L. forms the main part of the category. These species are one of the most ancient types of geese and show a number of valuable farm features in themselves. The researchers revealed the classification, origin, characteristics and prospects for genetic-selection use of these species.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://pnrjournal.com/index.php/home/article/view/7720 PROSPECTS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION SERVICES MARKET 2023-02-01T07:10:32+00:00 Muxitdinov Xudayar Suyunovich , Ochilov Laziz Siddiqovich a@a.com <p>The theoretical foundations of information and communication and telecommunication services in the conditions of the digital economy are shown. A mathematical apparatus for constructing an econometric model of a complex number of volumes of information and communication and telecommunications services of the region has been developed. Built an empirical model of the information and communication and telecommunications service system using digital technologies.</p> <p>Medium-term forecasts for the development of information and communication and telecommunications services of kashkadarya region have been developed.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://pnrjournal.com/index.php/home/article/view/7721 RESULTS OF THE LATEST EPIDEMIOLOGICAL DATA IN DYNAMICS IN THE BUKHARA REGION 2023-02-01T07:12:31+00:00 Turaev F.F., Alimova N.U., Yuldasheva F.Z., Sadikova A.S., Berdikulova D.M. a@a.com <p><strong>Relevance: </strong>Iodine deficiency diseases (IDD) are a set of pathological conditions that develop in the population due to iodine deficiency, which can be prevented by normalizing iodine intake (WHO).</p> <p><strong>Aim</strong>: to study the dynamics of the prevalence of iodine deficiency diseases among the population of the Bukhara region of the Republic of Uzbekistan.</p> <p><strong>Research materials and methods</strong>: In order to study the prevalence of IDD in dynamics among the organized population of the Bukhara region, an epidemiological study was conducted, which included schools and kindergartens (random sampling), in rural areas (Peshku district) and in the city of Bukhara. To conduct a quantitative assessment of the iodine content, 367 urine samples were collected (schoolchildren aged 11-15 and among pupils in kindergartens aged 4-6). Criteria for assessing the severity of IDS were chosen criteria developed by WHO experts. To determine the concentration of iodine in the urine, the method of Nawschinek O. et al., improved by Mishchenko B.P., was used. and others (10). The obtained data were statistically processed using the MS Excel software package.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: A comparative analysis of the prevalence of diffuse goiter showed that the incidence of goiter I degree decreased from 50.8% in 1998 to 20.2% in 2022. The incidence of goiter II degree decreased from 13.7% in 1998 to 2.7% in 2022. The present study showed that in 2022 the prevalence of diffuse goiter in the region was 22.9%, which indicates a dynamic decrease compared to 1998, although the degree of DY remains moderate. An analysis of ioduria showed that the optimal intake of iodine was found in 58.9% of the population, in contrast to 1998 (lack of iodine in the diet in 95.1%).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: There is a decrease in the prevalence of endemic goiter in dynamics from 64.5% in 1998 to 22.9% in 2022, which indicates a positive trend. The data obtained on the normal content of iodine in the urine, 56.7%, indicate that half of the children still do not receive a normal amount of iodine with table salt.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 https://pnrjournal.com/index.php/home/article/view/7722 INCIDENCE OF THERMOPHILIC FUNGI IN DIFFERENT REGIONS OF MANCHERIAL DISTRICT, TELANGANA 2023-02-01T07:28:27+00:00 P. Princy Priyanka, T. Shiva Chander, P. Neeraja, B. Sreelatha a@a.com <p>With the growing demand of thermophilic fungi as a promising source of respective enzymes and biomolecules, this study was aimed for the efficient isolation and identification of heat-adapted fungi from easily accessible, thermogenic substrates. Different substrates such as coal mines soil, Birds nest, soil from brick kiln, Decomposing litter were collected for the isolation and characterization of several fungi. Then the percentage of incidence, frequency, and abundance of thermophilic fungi was assessed. <em>Aspergillus</em> <em>fumigatus, Rhizopus, Acremonium alabamensis, and Mucor</em> were observed from all the samples, they were proved to be thermotolerant.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://pnrjournal.com/index.php/home/article/view/7736 THE INFLUENCE OF COPPER AND ZINC ADDITIONS ON HARDNESS, ELASTIC MODULUS AND WEAR BEHAVIOR OF Al-B4C COMPOSITE 2023-02-01T10:07:58+00:00 Shaik Abdul Munaf , Srinivasa Reddy Vempati , S. Magibalan , A Krishnakumari , M Saravanan , S. Satish Kumar , B. Ramesh a@a.com <p>Aluminum metal matrix composites (AMMCs) have appeared as a viable alternative to cast iron brake discs because of the automobile industry’s need to reduce weight. In addition to appropriate mechanical resistance and thermal qualities, the material’s wear performance is crucial. An Aluminium-Boron alloy strengthened with B<sub>4</sub>C was tested for wear behavior in this work. Nanoindentation was used to assess the hardness and elastic modulus of the intermetallic stages in the matrix alloy. When 20% carbides were added to the alloy matrix, the elastic modulus increased by 35–40%. All materials had a wear rate of 2–8*10−5 mm3/Nm. During wear, the coefficient of friction dropped and the tribo-layer played an important role.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://pnrjournal.com/index.php/home/article/view/7737 ANALYSIS OF CURRENT FLUX DENSITY MAGNITUDE (CFDM) OF A SINGLE CHANNEL NAFION BASED PEM FUEL CELL 2023-02-01T10:10:17+00:00 Nishanth A, Robin Raju, Vikas Rajan, Gouri Nandana P.R a@a.com <p>The need for energy is growing day by day and scientists as well as engineers are rolling up their sleeves for developing several methods for countering this deficiency in energy. Fuel cells are a good remedy for dealing with this energy deficiency. Proton exchange membrane (PEMFC) is the most popular and commonly used one among the different kinds of fuel cells (FC) due to its high efficiency. In this paper a 3D model of a simple nafion based PEMFC is designed and studied for its current density under varying mass fraction of hydrogen. This study helps in determining the optimum mass fraction of inlet fuel such that both overhydration and dehydration of Nafion in the cell can be avoided and it also helps&nbsp; to regulate the cell temperature below the glass transition temperature of the Nafion membrane.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://pnrjournal.com/index.php/home/article/view/7738 EFFECT OF FRICTION STIR WELDING PARAMETERS ON DIFFERENT JOINTS AA7075-T651 AND AA6351-T6 ALUMINUM ALLOYS 2023-02-01T10:12:14+00:00 T. Karthikeyan , M. Pandian , S. Magibalan , T. Sathish , A. Balakumaran , K.M. Kumar , B. Ramesh a@a.com <p>This study examined the tensile strength of two variant aluminum alloys, AA6351-T6 and AA7075-T651, by combining them in a butt joint arrangement. It was possible to use friction stir welding to weld shapes like as cylinders and triangles with tool profiles like squares, as well as rates of 40, 70, and 90 mm/min. With a maximum SV/DV ratio of 2.4 for other tool profiles, the square pin profile provided the best pulsating activity. An investigation of the nugget zone microstructure indicated that inadequate stirring of the materials caused some fractures at higher welding speeds. According to a microhardness study, the HAZ of both zones was shown to have a decreased microhardness on both sides. According to the test results, the rigidity of the nugget zone in the center was greater than the BM of AA6351-T6 and less than AA7075-T651. Process parameters were combined according to the Taguchi optimization approach, which resulted in improved tensile strength for the final product. When the process settings were optimized, the following dissimilar joints could achieve a maximum tensile strength of 183MPa: Welding Speed: -70mm/minute, Tool Rotational Speed: 1200 rpm and Tool Profile Square.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://pnrjournal.com/index.php/home/article/view/7739 STUDY OF CORROSION AND TRIBOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF ZINC-TUNGSTEN ALLOY PROCESSED BY CRYOGENIC CONDITIONS 2023-02-01T10:14:33+00:00 Srinivasa Reddy Vempati , M. Pandian , A. Krishnakumari , M. Saravanan , M. Arun , P. Arivalagan , B. Ramesh a@a.com <p>It is estimated that Zinc-3 % Tungsten alloy exposed to multiaxial forging (MAF) at room temperature has wear and corrosion properties. Using a pin-on-disk dry sliding wear setup, we were able to investigate the effects of 15 and 25 N loads on wear over a range of sliding distances and speeds (600-3600 metres) By increasing the samples’ hardness through MAF cycles, frictional losses and wear mass losses are reduced. Surface layer wear resistance reduces with raising load and sliding velocity. Deformation zones, wear tracks, microcracks and micro-plowing grooves can all be seen on the worn surface. As MAF passes increase due&nbsp;&nbsp; to grain refinement, the current density (Icorr) is clearly demonstrated by potentiodynamic polarisation testing. According to electrochemical impedance measurements, the capacitive arc’s width rise as a result of the reduced corrosion rate. Higher MAF passes demonstrated improved corrosion resistance.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://pnrjournal.com/index.php/home/article/view/7740 OPTIMIZATION OF HUMIDIFICATION-DEHUMIDIFICATION SOLAR DESALINATION SYSTEM 2023-02-01T10:16:54+00:00 Arun Reji, J S Jayakumar, P Raj Ranjitha a@a.com <p class="Abstract" style="line-height: 115%; tab-stops: 22.5pt; margin: 0in 0in 8.0pt 0in;">Undersupply of water and major energy resources is one of the major problems in today’s world. Among these, water scarcity is severe, and the major challenge facing it is to convert a huge amount of seawater to make it available for human use. Many methods exist but are high energy-consuming and are not cost-effective. Energy management is also a major consideration; hence energy consumption can be reduced by using solar energy. Humidification-Dehumidification (HDH) solar desalination system is a widely accepted method due to its cost-effectiveness, and the main advantage is it can be coupled with solar energy, that makes it very energy efficient. The use of coupling with solar makes it affordable in remote areas where transportation and electricity are not there. Optimization of the HDH solar desalination system is important to reduce the size and make it more <a name="_Int_iVdRRBaO"></a>energy-efficient. If the size increases, the pumping power for water to a big area will consume more power. The main objective of this study is to optimize the size of the dehumidifier. The mass transfer coefficient used in this study is based on surface renewal time to study the mass transfer taking place in a dehumidifier. In this study, for the optimized height of the dehumidifier, its width is also optimized to avoid energy losses. Variation of superficial gas velocity and mass flow rate of air is also studied at an optimized width of 0.4m, and the variations are plotted and are being studied.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://pnrjournal.com/index.php/home/article/view/7741 FRACTURE BEHAVIOUR OF A COMPOSITE LAMINA UNDER MECHANICAL, THERMAL AND THERMO-MECHANICAL LOADING CONDITIONS 2023-02-01T10:19:02+00:00 V.V.Venu Madhav , Y. Padma , P.Phani prasanthi , Ch. Sri Chaitanya , A.V.S.S.K.S. Gupta , V. V. Spandana a@a.com <p>Analysis of Composite materials is a challenging task as these materials are influenced by many parameters such as geometry, stacking sequence, type of loading etc. In this work, the fracture response of a composite rectangular plate has been studied under mechanical, thermal and combined thermo- mechanical loading using the Finite element method. Strain energy release rate (SERR) under different loading conditions for different lay-ups of a composite laminate is addressed with the presence of a crack. The finite element models are validated by using analytical results. The influence of geometrical elements such as width and thickness on the SERR was also discovered. According to the findings of this study, SERR is highest under coupled thermo-mechanical loading and lowest under pure thermal loading.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://pnrjournal.com/index.php/home/article/view/7742 NUMERICAL STUDIES ON VORTEX SHEDDING CHARACTERISTICS OF FLOW PAST CURVED SURFACES AT LOW REYNOLDS NUMBERS 2023-02-01T10:22:20+00:00 Anurag Goney , S Ajith Kumar , Ajith Kumar R a@a.com <p class="Abstract" style="line-height: 115%; margin: 0in 0in 8.0pt 0in;">In this paper, numerical simulation results of two-dimensional flow over curved plates in laminar flow regime are presented. “S” shaped blade which is a combination of both concave and convex profile is studied. Strouhal number trends are reported for different curvature ratios (0 ≤ CR ≤ 1) by varying Reynolds number (40 ≤ Re ≤ 180). OpenFOAM<sup>®</sup> was used for numerical simulations. Distinct vortex shedding patterns are observed. Unlike other bluff bodies, the variation of vortex shedding frequency is not found to increase with increasing Reynolds number.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://pnrjournal.com/index.php/home/article/view/7744 EFFECT OF WALL FLEXIBILITY ON THE FLUID – SOLID INTERFACIAL SLIP IN NANOCHANNELS 2023-02-01T10:24:43+00:00 Sarath Sankar B S , Jeetu S Babu , Ebin P S a@a.com <p>The speed of fluid transport in nanoscale channels was found to be influenced by the slippage in fluid -solid interface. Manipulating slip length to control nanochannel fluid flow is seen as a viable choice. Using molecular dynamics (MD), the study of the nanochannel is done. The effects like the surface roughness, and channel width are all considered to study the slip length and its influence at fluid – solid interface. In this research, the variation brought about in the interaction potential is used for the slip length manipulation and also and the wall is made elastic by altering the spring constant. The variation in slip length in each scenario is achieved. The slip length increases when the interaction potential is less and vice versa. Similarly, when the wall becomes elastic, the slip length reduces. This manipulation of slip can used in nanofiltration as electro – osmosis velocity will be enhanced with improvement in slip.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://pnrjournal.com/index.php/home/article/view/7746 ANALYSIS OF DIMENSIONAL ACCURACY AND SURFACE ROUGHNESS OF FDM 3D PRINTED PARTS HAVING 100% INFILL DENSITY 2023-02-01T10:27:35+00:00 Durga Prasada Rao.V , Durga Hemanth Kumar.K , SatishRaja.M , V.Ch.R.K.Santosh.P a@a.com <p class="Abstract" style="line-height: 115%; tab-stops: .25in; margin: 0in 0in 8.0pt 0in;">Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) is entirely focused on extrusion of thermoplastics and thermosetting-fills. When choosing a thermoplastic polymer to use in an FDM 3D printing process, the properties like part strength, surface quality, accuracy and mechanical properties can be varied to suit a particular application. The thermoplastic filament materials, viz., Polylactic acid (PLA) and Polyethylene terephthalate glycol (PETG) are the best biodegradable filament materials and exhibit good visual quality and mechanical properties of parts produced by 3D printing. This work investigates the surface roughness quality and dimensional accuracy of 100% infill density parts fabricated by FDM process using Carbon fibre PLA and PETG. The cuboid shaped test specimens with dimensions 40 mm× 40 mm×15 mm are considered. The layer thickness, printing speed, nozzle diameter and nozzle temperature for the printing process are set at 0.1 mm, 30 mm/s, 0.4 mm and 220˚C respectively. To check the dimensional accuracy, in particular the warping deformation, a dial vernier caliper is used. The surface roughness of different surfaces is measured by a portable surface roughness tester. According to the experimental results, both carbon fibre PLA and PETG show good dimensional accuracy in 90˚ measuring direction perpendicular to building direction and best surface quality over 10 mm scanned profile. Specifically, the printed parts of both the materials have got low warping and shape distortions due to heat shrinkage. Also on an average scale, carbon fibre PLA filament material comparatively shows a better surface behaviour than PETG. This study can be extended to other advanced and best performing polymers like PEEK, PEEK CF and PEI/ULTEM, which have good mechanical and thermal properties.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://pnrjournal.com/index.php/home/article/view/7751 OPTIMIZATION OF PROCESS PARAMETERS FOR WEDM ON GRAPHENE – BN- AZ91 COMPOSITE THROUGH HYBRID TECHNIQUES 2023-02-01T13:09:00+00:00 M. Pandian , S. A. Muhammed Abraar , Y. Sesha Rao , U. Haribabu , M. Siva , G. Dhayanithi , B. Ramesh a@a.com <p>Material removal rate (MRR) and surface roughness (Ra) of the recently advanced AZ91 MMC were examined in this analysis using the WEDM (Wire Electric Discharge Machining) variable. Reinforcement Wt. percent and BN doping percent have been selected to assess their properties on the targeted yield responses. Pulse-On Time (P-ON), Pulse-Off Time (P-OFF), and Wire Feed Rate (WFD) have also been designated (MRR and Ra). Finally, the yield response factors, include MRR and Ra, are examined employing a Taguchi-combined GRA. The conventional wisdom that increasing P-ON improves MRR has been re-examined in this comprehensive research. A Taguchi-combined grey relation analysis (GRA) was used to make a compromise between MRR and Ra, as increasing machining time leads to a accelerate in production costs. This was the most optimal arrangement of input variables.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://pnrjournal.com/index.php/home/article/view/7752 IMPROVED THERMAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF BORON NITRIDE COMPOSITES REINFORCED WITH POLYPROPYLENE TEREPHTHALATE 2023-02-01T13:11:42+00:00 P. Ashokkumar , R. Selvam , S. Magibalan , S. Satish Kumar , G. Ramesh , P. Arivalagan , B. Ramesh a@a.com <p>Polypropylene terephthalate nanosheets were created using a solution casting process Boron Nitride Nanosheets (BNNs). With increased nanosheet content, polypropylene terephthalate chain mobility is restricted, which inhibits crystal formation, there- fore reducing the melting point and crystallization behavior of the composites studied. Improvements in mechanical characteristics can be shown in the nanoindentation studies performed on composite films. A 3 wt % fermentation of BNNs in Polypropylene terephthalate (PPT) resulted in a 34.2 % rise in elastic modulus and a 32.6 % surge in hardness.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://pnrjournal.com/index.php/home/article/view/7753 IN ONLINE SOCIAL NETWORK USING GREY WOLF AND DEEP LEARNING TECHNIQUE FOR INFLUENTIAL USER PREDICTION (IUP) 2023-02-01T13:13:59+00:00 P. Jothi , R. Padmapriya a@a.com <p class="Abstract" style="line-height: 115%; tab-stops: .25in; margin: 0in 0in 8.0pt 0in;">The far-reaching use of Online Social Networks (OSNs) and the often growing volume of knowledge provided by their members have motivated both corporate and scientific researchers to investigate how certain systems can be manipulated. According to recent findings, monitoring and evaluating the influence of OSN users has significant applications in the fields of health, economics, education, politics, entertainment, and other fields. The propagation model has an impact on a centrality measure's capacity to show a node's ability to disseminate influence. In certain modeling techniques, the centrality measures perform well on directed contacts. However, centrality measures not perform well for indirect contacts. To improve prediction performance, additional measures and combined centrality measures are proposed by employing linear combinations of measures is proposed in this article. The deep learning-based CNN algorithm is developed for Influential User Prediction (IUP). The relevant measures selected by Grey Wolf Optimization (GWO) are fed into Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) for training and trained model for IUP. GW algorithm initializes many grey wolves, finds the optimal measures and provides the best solutions (IUP) using CNN. The GW positions are updated to look for new solutions until a near-optimal solution is found. The proposed GW-CNN is compared with CNN, CPPNP, and TDSIP and proved GW-CNN provides the best results for IUP.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://pnrjournal.com/index.php/home/article/view/7754 INFLUENCE OF FDM PROCESS PARAMETERS ON IMPACT STRENGTH OF CARBON FIBRE PLA COMPONENTS 2023-02-01T13:18:53+00:00 Durga Prasada Rao V , Tarun Kumar Kotteda , Sandeep Varma Kuchampudi , Durga Prasad Balam a@a.com <p class="Abstract" style="line-height: 115%; tab-stops: 13.5pt; margin: 0in 0in 8.0pt 0in;">Impact strength is the ability of a material to absorb shock without breaking and it indicates toughness. The present work emphasizes on how the impact strength of carbon fibre PLA is influenced by the Fusion Deposition Modeling (FDM) parameters, viz., layer thickness, infill pattern and print temperature. ASTM-D256 type 1 standard is used to design the impact test specimens. Three levels for each of these FDM parameters are considered for the printing process, and to prepare the impact test specimens by FDM, a full factorial design of experiments (33) is selected. The results are analyzed by conducting ANOVA and it is identified that the impact strength of carbon fibre PLA is influenced mostly by the layer thickness. The ANOVA results reveal that the impact strength of carbon fibre PLA is notably influenced by the interaction between infill pattern and print temperature. Also, a moderate influence is observed for the interaction between layer thickness and print temperature on the impact strength. But the interaction between layer thickness and infill pattern has negligible influence on the impact strength. It is noticed from the general linear model obtained out of ANOVA that the impact strength is mainly influenced by the layer thickness followed by print temperature and infill pattern. The Pareto chart and normalized plot drawn for impact strength also reveal that layer thickness, print temperature, in fill pattern, and interaction of infill pattern and print temperature are potentially important and their relative influence on impact strength is in descending order</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://pnrjournal.com/index.php/home/article/view/7755 REVIEW OF RECENT TECHNIQUES IN POROUS MEDIA COMBUSTION 2023-02-01T13:21:06+00:00 Sreejitha Raj, J S Jayakumar a@a.com <p>Increased use of fossil fuels for the need of power production has led to the extensive development of porous media, which leads to its growing interest in petrochemical and power generation studies. Due to the lean flammability limit, better emission characteristics, higher energy density and strong radiation emission PMC is gaining more attention among researchers. Efforts were undertaken to solve the fundamental concerns associated with porous media for combustion. Thermal coupling between the flame and the combustor geometry plays a decisive role in determining the combustion process, such as flammability limitations, flame stability regimes, temperature, speed of the flame etc. In this review paper, a better understanding and evolution of porous combustors is studied, focusing more on the materials, fuels and recent applications in the &nbsp;PMC technique.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://pnrjournal.com/index.php/home/article/view/7756 FIRE MODELLING AND SIMULATION OF BUILDING EVACUATION 2023-02-01T13:23:05+00:00 Annapurna Bharti , Rajasekaran G a@a.com <p class="Abstract" style="line-height: 115%; tab-stops: .25in; margin: 0in 0in 8.0pt 0in;">Increasingly more academic institutions are built in towns, but on the identical time fireplace safety requirements of those homes are very critical too. On this present work, distinct fire features for classroom model of school building in fireplace accident has been studied. Single school building fire may additionally motive a large range of fatalities because of the feasible excessive variety of human beings involved in it. In this study, the (CFD) computational fluid dynamics - FDS software method is used to predict the fire dynamics in a classroom of a school building. The dimension of classroom model used in this study measures 10m in length, 7m in breadth and 4m in ceiling height, which is same as the dimension of the selected classroom of the school. Essential aspects of fire features were investigated which include temperature distribution, heat release rate and smoke propagation. The simulation suggests that heat release rate could be very excessive, and also temperature rises to a very high value ensuing in an uncontrollable fire circumstance. The smoke produced through the burning of wood substances of tables, chairs, green boards and display boards leads to poor or no visibility, further making hard for occupants to escape. Effects obtained are important for production or improving fire safety necessities in classroom of school buildings. The result can also be beneficial for fireplace danger assessment and layout of evacuation system in educational institutions.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://pnrjournal.com/index.php/home/article/view/7757 FATIGUE ANALYSIS OF FIBRE REINFORCED POLYMER COMPOSITE FILLED WITH NANO FILLERS 2023-02-01T13:25:07+00:00 C. Ramesh , D. Raja Joseph , Keerthika Balaga , Kota Yogi Ganesh , Mogilisetti Ravi a@a.com <p>In recent years, polymer composites made with glass fibre and epoxy resin are attracting various industries like automobile, marine, space and airline industries. Carbon nanoparticles have amazing potential to increase the strength of reinforcements and matrices in FRP composites. In this study, three different fibre reinforced composite laminates were made with and without adding the nanoparticles using a hand layup method. Multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) are employed as a filler material in the laminates which are made using glass fibre reinforced with epoxy resin.</p> <p>Three types of glass fibre-reinforced epoxy laminates such as parent laminate, 0.5% MWCNT added laminate and 1% MWCNT added laminate are subjected to quasi static indentation, Tensile loading and fatigue loading. It was discovered that adding MWCNTs to GFRP changed the mechanical characteristics of the material. The addition of 0.5% carbon nanotubes showed noticeable changes in the mechanical behaviour with 18.86 % increase in tensile strength, 21.59% increase in impact strength and 18.63 % increase in fatigue cycle. Also, addition of 01% carbon nanotubes showed that 28.26% increase in tensile strength, 32.15 % increase in impact strength and35.06 % increase in fatigue cycle.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://pnrjournal.com/index.php/home/article/view/7758 FRACTURE BEHAVIOUR OF A RECTANGULAR COMPOSITE LAMINA WITH A VIRTUAL CRACK UNDER DIFFERENT LOADING CONDITIONS 2023-02-01T13:33:58+00:00 V.V.Venu Madhav , Y. Padma , P.Phani prasanthi , Ch. Sri Chaitanya , A.V.S.S.K.S. Gupta , V. V. Spandana a@a.com <p>The increase in the usage of fibre reinforced polymers in the transportation sector increases the need for studying their behaviour under real life loading conditions. To reduce the experimental costs for testing, mathematical models can be implemented to predict fracture behavior. In the present study, a rectangular plate with a delamination defect and a virtual crack was modeled in ANSYS and the fracture behaviour was studied when the mechanical, thermal and thermo-mechanical loads are applied to the plate. The fracture behaviour of the rectangular plate was quantified by the strain energy release rate (SERR) and the effect of the fibre orientation angle, lamina stacking and thickness of the laminate was studied. The SERR increased with the increase in the applied loads. The thermo-mechanical loads have higher impact on the SERR compared to other loads. The increase in the thickness of the laminate reduced the SERR. The Angle – ply stacking sequence has a higher SERR than the cross-ply sequence.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://pnrjournal.com/index.php/home/article/view/7759 IN SILICO SCREENING OF ANTITUBERCULAR AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF INDAZOLE BASED NATURAL ALKALOIDS AND A NOVEL INDAZOLE DERIVATIVE 2023-02-01T13:36:45+00:00 R. B. Nanaware , A. R. Chabukswar , D. D. Rokade , P. H. Jain a@a.com <p>The naturally occurring indazole scaffold containing alkaloids Nigeglanine, Nigellicine, and Nigellidine, which are derived from Nigella Sativa and Nigella Glandulifera, shows antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and other pharmacological actions. Recent studies have revealed the potential value of these molecules in a variety of biological conditions. Resistance and severe side effects, however, drive research into new and more effective anti-inflammatory and anti-tuberculosis medications. In this research molecular docking analysis along with ADMET and drug likeness prediction were carried out to evaluate the newly designed indazole scaffold as potent Enoyl-ACP (CoA) reductase enzyme and cox-2 inhibitor. Comparing with reference compound docking scores isoniazid (-5.21 kcal/mol) and indomethacin (-6.42 kcal/mol) compound BPM showed highest binding affinities (-7.66 and -7.46 kcal/mol) with respective enzymes. Depending on the specific ADMET risk factors and drug similarity for oral bioavailability, all indazole scaffolds shows significant activity. Present study demonstrated that newly designed indazole scaffold and natural alkaloids containing indazole nucleus could be the potential drug of choice against inflammation and tuberculosis.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://pnrjournal.com/index.php/home/article/view/7760 STUDY OF PRESCRIPTION PATTERN OF COVID-19 INTENSIVE CARE UNIT PATIENTS IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL 2023-02-01T13:38:55+00:00 Sudeep Immanuel David , Dr. Gracia Sohkhlet , Sanjay Dabhade , Harshavardhan Bhide , Shraddha Sanjay Bapat , A.V. Tilak a@a.com <p>COVID- 19 was the most challenging public health problem worldwide&nbsp;for better part of 2 years (2019 – 2021). Although several of the medication have not demonstrated promising benefits in the majority of research, they are nonetheless utilized. The purpose of this study was to compare and contrast the hospital pharmaceutical care of COVID-19 patients by sex, age group, and&nbsp; with regards to oxygen consumption classifying and grouping them with comorbidities seen and auxiliary medication given . Hospital based retrospective observational study was conducted among 123 patients with antigen positive Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction confirmed COVID- 19 infection admitted in the ICU for 24 hours prior. As the age increased the chance for &nbsp;ICU admission also increased. The most affected age group was above 50 years of age. The total number of patients requiring oxygen was 100% in COVID- 19 ICU patients. Some of the most common comorbidities were heart disease (18%) followed by Diabetes Mellitus (15%)&nbsp; and&nbsp; Hypertension (15 %). Only 48 % of patients received antivirals. Remdesivir which was the mainstay antiviral was given (41%). &nbsp;Amoxicillin and clavulanate combination (Augmentin 625 mg) was the most commonly prescribed antibiotic (27%).The antipyretic of choice was paracetamol which was given to 100% of patients. Almost all patients (78%) were given enoxaparin sodium as the anticoagulant of choice. Regardless of equivocal results, multivitamins and supplements were recommended to all patients. All prescription guidelines as given by ICMR for COVID- 19 ICU patients&nbsp; were followed with the exception of the extensive antimicrobial use.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023