Plagiarism in any form constitutes a serious violation of the principles of scholarship and is not acceptable. Examples of plagiarism include
- Word-for-word copying of portions of another's writing without enclosing the copied passage in quotation marks and acknowledging the source in the appropriate scholarly convention.
- The use of a particularly unique term or concept without acknowledging the original author or source.
- The paraphrasing or abbreviated restatement of someone else's ideas without acknowledging that another person's text has been the basis for the paraphrasing.
- False citation: material should not be attributed to a source from which it has not been obtained.
- False data: data that has been fabricated or altered in a laboratory or experiment; although not factually plagiarism, this is clearly a form of academic fraud.
- Unacknowledged multiple authors or collaboration: the contributions of each author or collaborator should be made clear.
- Self-plagiarism/double submission: the submission of the same or a very similar paper to two or more publications.