Mental Health of Preschool and Primary School Children: Dynamics and Improvement

Authors

  • Valentina Spichak

Keywords:

academic performance, aggressive behavior, children, improvement, preschool age, primary school age

Abstract

Improving the mental health of children is one of the main tasks for modern society. The aim of the work is to study the dynamics of
mental health in preschool and primary school children under a psychological and pedagogical experiment. The study was conducted at 12
kindergartens (250 children) and three primary schools (200 children) in 2018–2019, in Moscow (Russian Federation). Children of each age
group were divided into two groups according to the time spent on the Internet. The control group spent up to 15min a day. The experimental group had an uncontrolled pastime. In total, there were four groups. The performance indicators (average score) and the dynamics of
aggression were studied. The parents were provided with a survey. Children and parents had lectures with psychologists and teachers during
the second academic year. The number of students with high academic performance increased by 1.4 times in 2019 compared with that of
2018 (p≤0.05). Meanwhile, the number of students with low academic performance decreased by 1.3 times (p≤0.05). The aggression in
preschoolers improved during 2018. Thus, instrumental aggression in the experimental group decreased by 1.6 times (p≤0.01), indirect
aggression by 1.2 times (p≤0.05), verbal aggression by 1.2 times (p≤0.05). The control group indicators decreased by 1.7 times (p≤0.01),
1.9 times (p≤0.01), and 1.4 times (p≤0.01), respectively. The level of aggression also decreased in 2019. In the control group, instrumental aggression decreased by 1.4 times less (p≤0.05), indirect aggression 1.6 times (p≤0.01), and verbal aggression 1.5 times (p≤0.05).
Meanwhile, the experimental group indicators decreased to a lesser extent: 1.2 times (p≤0.05), 1.2 times (p≤0.05), and 1.3 times (p≤0.05),
respectively. The child aggression can be associated with an extra time spent on the Internet and the conniving attitude of parents. Children
from the experimental group demonstrated aggressive behavior 1.5–1.7 times more often than children from the control group (p≤0.01).
The survey of parents showed the same pattern. Thus, connivance of aggression and an aggressive reaction to communication with teachers
were more significant (0.5–0.7 times, p≤0.05) in the experimental group compared with the control. The improvement of the behavior of
children was successful already after 1 year of the experiment. The academic performance improved, while aggressiveness decreased in all
groups.

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Published

2021-01-30

Issue

Section

Articles

How to Cite

Mental Health of Preschool and Primary School Children: Dynamics and Improvement. (2021). Journal of Pharmaceutical Negative Results, 12(1), 20-26. https://pnrjournal.com/index.php/home/article/view/164