Secondary bacterial infection in Adult Patients with COVID-19 in Iraq


  • Mustafa Awad
  • Shehab A. Lafi
  • Haitham Noaman



COVID-19,Age, sputum, bacterial infections, lymphopenia.


Background Secondary bacterial and fungal infections were the leading causes of patient mortality and morbidity in Iraqi patients infected with COVID-19. Damage to the respiratory system was caused by a viral infection that occurred later.
Aim of the study: This research set out to identify the specific bacteria that tend to infect people who have contracted the COVID-19 virus.
Patients and methods: Adult male and female patients with a secondary bacterial infection were included in this study from isolation hospitals in Baghdad and Anbar province. Patients had sputum samples and blood drawn to check for Coronavirus infections; sputum samples were sent to VITEK2 for a bacteriological investigation, which included the cultivation and identification of secondary bacterial infections. Sputum RT-PCR for the detection of Mycoplasma pneumonia. concentrations of procalcitonin (PCT) in blood samples.
Results: The symptoms of lymphopenia and neutrophilia with other parameters were present in seventy-four (74) patients, both male and female. It was found that 51.60 % of the bacteria were Gram-positive and 23.15 % were Gram-negative. It was found that (15.78%) of the isolates were from fungi. One patient (1.05%) had a negative isolation result for mycoplasma pneumonia out of eight patients (8.42%) who tested positive.
Conclusion: Staphylococcus aureus was the most common bacteria found in our research, while Enterobacter aerogenes was the least. Our research showed that neutrophils and lymphocytes are inversely related.







How to Cite

Secondary bacterial infection in Adult Patients with COVID-19 in Iraq. (2022). Journal of Pharmaceutical Negative Results, 349-355.