Association Of Menstrual Phase With Central Corneal Thickness And Corneal Topography
Introduction: The development of corneal refractive surgery requires precision calculations, and it is known that female hormonal changes contribute to the corneal condition. Some previous studies found that sex steroid hormone receptors presence in the human corneal tissues.
Methods: A prospective observational study conducted on 44 healthy women of productive ages with regular menstrual cycles using a purposive sampling technique. Central corneal thickness and corneal topography were measured three times using optical biometry, according to menstrual phases (follicular, ovulation, and luteal phase). The ovulation phase is confirmed by determining a peak of luteinizing hormone levels in the urine.
Results: The mean central corneal thickness of both eyes was 537.5 ± 37.3 µm, 537.9 ± 36.1 µm, and 536 ± 37.4 µm, at the follicular, ovulation, and luteal phase, respectively. The mean corneal topography of both eyes was -1.19 ± 0.60 D, -1.09 ± 0.55 D, and -1.14 ± 0.62 D, at the follicular, ovulation, and luteal phase, respectively. The difference of central corneal thickness was statistically significant (p<0.05) relating to the different stages of menstrual cycle, meanwhile the difference of corneal topography was not statistically significant (p>0.05)
Conclusion: Central corneal thickness fluctuated during menstrual cycle; the thickest cornea was at ovulation phase (p<0.05). These corneal changes could be secondary to hormonal changes associated with menstrual cycles. These conditions should be considered for decision-making of corneal refractive surgery in women.