Design And Development Of A Project-Based STEM Teaching Model That Applies Rapport To Elementary School Mathematics
Rapport is an element that can be applied to students that can contribute to improving student achievement in the teaching and learning in the classroom. Accordingly, rapport in learning mathematics is needed so that basic mathematical knowledge and skills can be mastered as best as possible by students at school. The purpose of this study is to design and develop a project-based STEM Teaching Model that applies rapport elements for elementary school mathematics. This study involved three main phases using the Modified Design and Development Research (DDR) approach. The first phase is a needs analysis that uses a survey method of 400 primary school mathematics teachers to identify the need to develop the teaching model. Meanwhile, the second phase involved the design and development of the teaching model based on the Theory of Constructivism, the 5E Model, and the Gullapyan Model which would produce the main constructs and items for each construct that would be agreed upon by experts through a Fuzzy questionnaire instrument. Next, the final phase involved external evaluation, which was to evaluate the effectiveness of the teaching model developed for students in primary schools. The data would be analyzed descriptively involving the percentage of agreement required to develop a teaching model. Then, researchers would obtain the threshold values, d values, and expert agreement percentages to design and develop the main constructs and items for a STEM project-based teaching model for elementary school mathematics. Next, the data for the effectiveness phase used descriptive and inferential statistics. A t-test was used to compare the effect of applying the STEM project-based teaching model for the treatment group compared to the control group using conventional teaching methods.