COMPARITVE STUDY OF SMEAR LAYER REMOVAL AND ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF SILVER, CHITOSAN NANOPARTICLES AND SODIUM HYPOCHLORITE AGAINST ENTEROFECALIS WHEN USED AS ROOT CANAL IRRIGANTS- IN VITRO STUDY
Keywords:smear layer removal, antibacterial activity, silver, chitosan nanoparticles, sodium hypochlorite, enterofecalis, root canal irrigants, in vitro study, endodontics.
Background: As a very resistant microorganism in infected root canals, Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) can stubbornly survive lethal challenges and invade dentinal tubules, making it the most persistent pathogen in root canal treatment. Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) is the most commonly encountered microorganism detected in persistent root canal infections. These bacteria possess certain virulence factors, invade dentinal tubules and resist nutritional deprivation. Proper irrigation is an essential step for success in root canal therapies which is achieved by using excellent endodontic irrigants. Aim: To evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of Sodium Hypochlorite (NaOCl), Silver Diamine Fluoride (SDF), Chitosan Nanoparticles (CNPs) root canal irrigants against the bacterial strain of Enterococcus Faecalis (E. faecalis) using agar well diffusion method. Materials and Methods: In this in-vitro study, the test materials were manipulated in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions. The antimicrobial properties of root canal irrigants were evaluated by using agar diffusion method using bacterial strain of Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212). 0.25 mL of each irrigant was placed on to 6.5 mm diameter blotting papers which were placed in 7 mm diameter wells on the Mueller Hinton agar plates. Later, E. faecalis strains were inoculated with sterile cotton swab on to the agar plates. Results: The p-value Sodium Hypochlorite showed the greatest zone of inhibition followed by SDF and Chitosan Nanoparticles respectively (p Sodium Hypochlorite showed the greatest zone of inhibition followed by SDF, Bioactive Glass Nanoparticles and Chitosan Nanoparticles respectively. Conclusion: Sodium Hypochlorite was the most effective root canal irrigant followed by SDF ,whereas Chitosan Nanoparticles was the least efficacious compared to the rest against Enterococcus Faecalis.