E-ISSN 2229-7723 | ISSN 0976-9234
 

Original Article 


Antimicrobial effect of chloroform Hibiscus sabdariffa extract on pathogenic bacteria

Elaheh Aleebrahim-Dehkordy, Mahmoud Rafieian-Kopaei, Behnam Zamanzad, Fatemeh Deris, Abolghasem Sharifih, Ali Reyhanian.

Abstract
Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa extract on oral and dental bacterial pathogens. Materials and Methods: In this study, the extract of H. sabdariffa was isolated by maceration with chloroform and concentrated by a rotary evaporator. The antimicrobial effects were examined using broth microdilution, and minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration values were determined. Next, the effect of different concentrations of extract on the growth of Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus mutans, and Streptococcus salivarius was investigated by disc diffusion method. Finally, the data were analyzed using SPSS 16 software (SPSS Inc., 233 South Wacker Drive, 11th Floor, Chicago, IL 60606-6412), and the results were presented as mean ( standard deviation). Results: The results of this study showed that the chloroform extract of H. sabdariffa had inhibitory and bactericidal effects on three bacteria in both broth microdilution and disc diffusion methods. In broth microdilution, S. mutans and S. salivarius were more resistant to H. sabdariffa extract than S. pyogenes. In disc diffusion method, the highest inhibitory effect of the extract was observed on S. pyogenes at 25 μg/ml with a growth inhibition zone diameter of 13.03 0.15 mm. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, it can be argued that the chloroform extract of H. sabdariffa is effective in inhibiting S. pyogenes, S. mutans, and S. salivarius in both broth microdilution and disc diffusion methods.

Key words: Antibiotic, antimicrobial effect, chloroform extract, Hibiscus sabdariffa, oral cavity and teeth


 
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How to Cite this Article
Pubmed Style

Elaheh Aleebrahim-Dehkordy, Mahmoud Rafieian-Kopaei, Behnam Zamanzad, Fatemeh Deris, Abolghasem Sharifih, Ali Reyhanian. Antimicrobial effect of chloroform Hibiscus sabdariffa extract on pathogenic bacteria. pnr. 2020; 11(1): 15-18. doi:10.4103/jpnr.JPNR_19_18


Web Style

Elaheh Aleebrahim-Dehkordy, Mahmoud Rafieian-Kopaei, Behnam Zamanzad, Fatemeh Deris, Abolghasem Sharifih, Ali Reyhanian. Antimicrobial effect of chloroform Hibiscus sabdariffa extract on pathogenic bacteria. http://www.pnrjournal.com/?mno=133356 [Access: September 22, 2020]. doi:10.4103/jpnr.JPNR_19_18


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Elaheh Aleebrahim-Dehkordy, Mahmoud Rafieian-Kopaei, Behnam Zamanzad, Fatemeh Deris, Abolghasem Sharifih, Ali Reyhanian. Antimicrobial effect of chloroform Hibiscus sabdariffa extract on pathogenic bacteria. pnr. 2020; 11(1): 15-18. doi:10.4103/jpnr.JPNR_19_18



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Elaheh Aleebrahim-Dehkordy, Mahmoud Rafieian-Kopaei, Behnam Zamanzad, Fatemeh Deris, Abolghasem Sharifih, Ali Reyhanian. Antimicrobial effect of chloroform Hibiscus sabdariffa extract on pathogenic bacteria. pnr. (2020), [cited September 22, 2020]; 11(1): 15-18. doi:10.4103/jpnr.JPNR_19_18



Harvard Style

Elaheh Aleebrahim-Dehkordy, Mahmoud Rafieian-Kopaei, Behnam Zamanzad, Fatemeh Deris, Abolghasem Sharifih, Ali Reyhanian (2020) Antimicrobial effect of chloroform Hibiscus sabdariffa extract on pathogenic bacteria. pnr, 11 (1), 15-18. doi:10.4103/jpnr.JPNR_19_18



Turabian Style

Elaheh Aleebrahim-Dehkordy, Mahmoud Rafieian-Kopaei, Behnam Zamanzad, Fatemeh Deris, Abolghasem Sharifih, Ali Reyhanian. 2020. Antimicrobial effect of chloroform Hibiscus sabdariffa extract on pathogenic bacteria. Journal of Pharmaceutical Negative Results, 11 (1), 15-18. doi:10.4103/jpnr.JPNR_19_18



Chicago Style

Elaheh Aleebrahim-Dehkordy, Mahmoud Rafieian-Kopaei, Behnam Zamanzad, Fatemeh Deris, Abolghasem Sharifih, Ali Reyhanian. "Antimicrobial effect of chloroform Hibiscus sabdariffa extract on pathogenic bacteria." Journal of Pharmaceutical Negative Results 11 (2020), 15-18. doi:10.4103/jpnr.JPNR_19_18



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Elaheh Aleebrahim-Dehkordy, Mahmoud Rafieian-Kopaei, Behnam Zamanzad, Fatemeh Deris, Abolghasem Sharifih, Ali Reyhanian. "Antimicrobial effect of chloroform Hibiscus sabdariffa extract on pathogenic bacteria." Journal of Pharmaceutical Negative Results 11.1 (2020), 15-18. Print. doi:10.4103/jpnr.JPNR_19_18



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Elaheh Aleebrahim-Dehkordy, Mahmoud Rafieian-Kopaei, Behnam Zamanzad, Fatemeh Deris, Abolghasem Sharifih, Ali Reyhanian (2020) Antimicrobial effect of chloroform Hibiscus sabdariffa extract on pathogenic bacteria. Journal of Pharmaceutical Negative Results, 11 (1), 15-18. doi:10.4103/jpnr.JPNR_19_18