E-ISSN 2229-7723 | ISSN 0976-9234
 

Original Article 


Prevalence of male infertility in Kirkuk city/Iraq

Ali Fadhil Alnajjar, Aso Sulaiman Qahraman, Ayad Abdulkaliq Ismael, Thulfeqar Ahmed Hamza, Yasir Salam Karim, Aiman Mohammed Baqir Al-Dhalimy.

Abstract
Background: Infertility is a major global health and social concern, it is affecting on average 15-20 % of couples worldwide. Although there were much data on infertility in other countries, little exist on infertility in Iraq, especially in Kirkuk city.
There are variations in male fertility parameters in different regions have repeatedly been suggested to be influenced by geographic locations. The impact of overall lifestyle, behavioral patterns, ethnicity, work stress and associated factors upon health differ greatly between countries leading to differences in semen qualities in connection with geographic variations. In this study we have two hundred and fifty infertile males in Kirkuk city complaining of infertility for more than one year were included in this study from January 2015-September 2018
Data source: - Azadi teaching hospital –infertility consultant center, private clinics, international IVF center. Data collected about smoking, alcoholic, anabolic hormones, atrophy, small or undescended testis and mumps, also seminal analysis and reproductive hormones levels.
Results showed majority of infertile at age 26- 35 years and 85.6% have primary infertility. The majority of sperm abnormality was azoospermia and poor spermatogenesis noted in candidates with, small testis, varicocele and smokers.
FSH, LH, and Prolactin were highly increase especially in small testis patients and to a lesser extent of normal size testis of the infertile. Testosterone hormone looks significantly decrease with zero increase both in normal and small size testis.
Aim of study: To study the prevalence of male factor contributing infertility with seminal, hormonal and other parameters in Kirkuk city-Iraq.

Key words: Kirkuk male infertility, Prolactin, Testosterone, spermatogenesis.


 
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How to Cite this Article
Pubmed Style

Alnajjar AF, Qahraman AS, Ismael AA, Hamza TA, Karim YS, Al-Dhalimy AMB. Prevalence of male infertility in Kirkuk city/Iraq. PNR. 2022; 13(1): 89-94. doi:10.47750/pnr.2022.13.01.016


Web Style

Alnajjar AF, Qahraman AS, Ismael AA, Hamza TA, Karim YS, Al-Dhalimy AMB. Prevalence of male infertility in Kirkuk city/Iraq. https://www.pnrjournal.com/?mno=106041 [Access: June 24, 2022]. doi:10.47750/pnr.2022.13.01.016


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Alnajjar AF, Qahraman AS, Ismael AA, Hamza TA, Karim YS, Al-Dhalimy AMB. Prevalence of male infertility in Kirkuk city/Iraq. PNR. 2022; 13(1): 89-94. doi:10.47750/pnr.2022.13.01.016



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Alnajjar AF, Qahraman AS, Ismael AA, Hamza TA, Karim YS, Al-Dhalimy AMB. Prevalence of male infertility in Kirkuk city/Iraq. PNR. (2022), [cited June 24, 2022]; 13(1): 89-94. doi:10.47750/pnr.2022.13.01.016



Harvard Style

Alnajjar, A. F., Qahraman, . A. S., Ismael, . A. A., Hamza, . T. A., Karim, . Y. S. & Al-Dhalimy, . A. M. B. (2022) Prevalence of male infertility in Kirkuk city/Iraq. PNR, 13 (1), 89-94. doi:10.47750/pnr.2022.13.01.016



Turabian Style

Alnajjar, Ali Fadhil, Aso Sulaiman Qahraman, Ayad Abdulkaliq Ismael, Thulfeqar Ahmed Hamza, Yasir Salam Karim, and Aiman Mohammed Baqir Al-Dhalimy. 2022. Prevalence of male infertility in Kirkuk city/Iraq. Journal of Pharmaceutical Negative Results, 13 (1), 89-94. doi:10.47750/pnr.2022.13.01.016



Chicago Style

Alnajjar, Ali Fadhil, Aso Sulaiman Qahraman, Ayad Abdulkaliq Ismael, Thulfeqar Ahmed Hamza, Yasir Salam Karim, and Aiman Mohammed Baqir Al-Dhalimy. "Prevalence of male infertility in Kirkuk city/Iraq." Journal of Pharmaceutical Negative Results 13 (2022), 89-94. doi:10.47750/pnr.2022.13.01.016



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Alnajjar, Ali Fadhil, Aso Sulaiman Qahraman, Ayad Abdulkaliq Ismael, Thulfeqar Ahmed Hamza, Yasir Salam Karim, and Aiman Mohammed Baqir Al-Dhalimy. "Prevalence of male infertility in Kirkuk city/Iraq." Journal of Pharmaceutical Negative Results 13.1 (2022), 89-94. Print. doi:10.47750/pnr.2022.13.01.016



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Alnajjar, A. F., Qahraman, . A. S., Ismael, . A. A., Hamza, . T. A., Karim, . Y. S. & Al-Dhalimy, . A. M. B. (2022) Prevalence of male infertility in Kirkuk city/Iraq. Journal of Pharmaceutical Negative Results, 13 (1), 89-94. doi:10.47750/pnr.2022.13.01.016